Presentation on theme: "Culture and Economic Systems ***An economic system consists of 3 components Livelihood or production- making good or money Consumption- using up goods."— Presentation transcript:
Culture and Economic Systems ***An economic system consists of 3 components Livelihood or production- making good or money Consumption- using up goods or money Exchange- The transfer of goods or money between people or institutions
Making a living and Food security Food security: The ability of an individual, household, group, or country to obtain an adequate diet overtime in order to sustain health. Mode of livelihood: The dominant way of making a living within a culture group, community or geographic region.
***Modes of Livelihood ForagingHorticulturePastoralismAgricultureIndustrialism/in formatics Reason for Production Production for use Reason for Production Production for profit Division of Labor Family-Based Overlapping gender roles Division of Labor Class-based High degree of occupational specialization Property Relations Egalitarian and collective Property Relations Stratified and private Resource use Extensive and temporary Resource use Intensive and expanding Sustainability High Degree Sustainability Low Degree
Foraging livelihood based on obtaining food that is available in nature via; hunting and gathering, fishing or scavenging. Foraging is the oldest way of making a living which humans share with non-Human primates. Presently, only 250,000 people worldwide provide for their livelihood through foraging. Depending on the environmental context foragers gather – nuts, berries, melons, roots, eggs, insects and honey. Hunting strategies employ– nets, spears, bows and arrows, knives and darts. Extensive strategy: A form of livelihood involving temporary use of large areas of land and a high degree of spatial mobility Hunter-gatherer societies have unique features within their Divisions of Labor dependent upon the environmental context. 60-70%= Gathering 30-40%= Hunting
Horticulture Is a livelihood based on the cultivation of domesticated plants in gardens with hand tools. Gardens must employ crop rotation and rainfall as its only source of water. Garden crops are often supplemented with foraging and exchange for animal products. Horticulture is still practiced by thousands of groups the world over. Horticulture follows 5 steps- clearing, planting, weeding, harvesting and fallowing Division of Labor is based primarily on 2 factors -gender and age. Children do more productive work in horticultural societies than in any other mode of livelihood.
Pastoralism Or herding, is a mode of livelihood based on domestication of animal herds and the use of their products, such as meat and milk. Pastoralism has long been the livelihood of groups in Middle East, Africa, Europe and Central Asia, specifically in semi- arid areas. However, pastoralism can exist in a variety or regions. 6 major species of animal are used in these systems and include-sheep, goats, cattle, horses, donkeys and camels. Division of Labor- is based on gender. Men tend and herd the animals. Women were in charge of processing the herd’s products.
Agriculture A mode of livelihood that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation and fertilizer. intensive strategy : a form of livelihood that involves continuous use of the same land and resources. Neolithic period (10,000 years ago) First documented agricultural systems in the Middle East. Agriculture relies on domesticated animals for plowing, manure and etc. Agriculture involves complex knowledge or the environment– soils, rainfall, pest indigenous crops and etc.
Agriculture (continued) Family farming: Production is mainly to support themselves but also produce goods for sale in a market system. Division of Labor is based on the family unit, gender and age. Industrial capital agriculture A form of agriculture that is capital-intensive, substituting machinery and purchased inputs for human and animal labor. Corporate Farm system
Industrialism and the Information Age …goods and services are produced through mass employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation, manipulation, management and transfer of information via electronic media. Formal vs. informal sectors Formal sector Salaried or wage-based work registered in official statistics Informal sector Work outside formal sector, not officially registered and not always legal.