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Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Peace and Security: Deterrence and Diplomacy

2 What is the chapter about? What are some causes of international conflict? What are some causes of international conflict? How does Singapore ensure its national security using the two- pronged approach of deterrence and diplomacy? How does Singapore ensure its national security using the two- pronged approach of deterrence and diplomacy?

3 Deterrence Deter: to discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding: The large dog deterred trespassers. Deter: to discourage or restrain from acting or proceeding: The large dog deterred trespassers. Deterrence: the act of deterring Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved November 04, 2008, from Dictionary.com website:

4 Diplomacy Diplomacy: The art or practice of conducting international relations, as in negotiating alliances, treaties, and agreements. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 04, 2008, from Dictionary.com website:

5 Conflict Conflict is natural in human Conflict is natural in humansocieties. People have conflicts all People have conflicts all the time. Countries are like people too. Countries are like people too.

6 Conflict Why do conflicts occur among countries? Why do conflicts occur among countries? - all countries want to protect their national interests - all countries want to protect their national interests - conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on various issues which might threaten their national interests - conflicts occur when countries do not agree with one another on various issues which might threaten their national interests

7 Territory Conflict over land / border Conflict over land / border e.g. India VS. China Singapore VS. Malaysia

8 Sino-Indian War:1962

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10 Pedra Branca (SIN)/ Pulau Batu Puteh (MAL)

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12 Dokdo / Takeshima

13 Resources E.g. Conflict over fishing grounds between Iceland and Britain E.g. Conflict over fishing grounds between Iceland and Britain

14 Iceland Britain

15 Ideology I-de-ol-o-gy : A set of doctrines or beliefs that form the basis of a political, economic, or other system. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 08, 2008, from Dictionary.com website:

16 Korean Conflict

17 North Korean believed in communism North Korean believed in communism South Korea believed in Democracy South Korea believed in Democracy USSR, USA, PRC and UN were all involved in the Korean Conflict USSR, USA, PRC and UN were all involved in the Korean Conflict

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21 How do countries manage conflicts? Criticise each other openly Criticise each other openly Reduce trade with the conflicting country Reduce trade with the conflicting country Resolve conflict through peaceful negotiations Resolve conflict through peaceful negotiations Seek help from regional and international organisations Seek help from regional and international organisations Start a war Start a war Display strength of military force to warn other countries Display strength of military force to warn other countries Cut diplomatic ties with each other Cut diplomatic ties with each other Protest to the other country through their representatives Protest to the other country through their representatives

22 How does Singapore manage conflict and ensure national security? It adopts a two-pronged approach It adopts a two-pronged approach Deterrence Diplomacy

23 Deterrence Refers to measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats Refers to measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from threats These threats may be from other countries or non-state aggressors like transnational terrorists These threats may be from other countries or non-state aggressors like transnational terrorists

24 How is deterrence practiced? Citizen’s armed force Citizen’s armed force

25 How is deterrence practiced? 3 rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces 3 rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces

26 How is deterrence practiced? Singapore’s defence industry Singapore’s defence industry

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29 How is deterrence practiced? Total Defence Total Defence

30 How is deterrence practiced? Multi-agency coordination on security Multi-agency coordination on security

31 How is deterrence practiced? Military co-operation with other countries Military co-operation with other countries - bilateral military agreements and excercises - Multi-lateral military agreements and excercises

32 Diplomacy Bilateral relations Bilateral relations Regional relations Regional relations International relations International relations

33 ASEAN ASEAN - Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Burma Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Burma Philippines Singapore Thailand VietnamBrunei Cambodia Indonesia Laos Malaysia Burma Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

34 United Nations United Nations Singapore was admitted as the 117 th member of the UN Singapore was admitted as the 117 th member of the UN Membership in the UN approves the sovereignty of the small states and therefore contributes to their independence and territorial integrity. The UN also enables a small country to develop friendship with other nations, monitor world trends and collect valuable information. (pg 186)


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