Presentation on theme: "Attitudes and Awareness toward ASEAN: Findings of a Ten Nation Survey"— Presentation transcript:
1Attitudes and Awareness toward ASEAN: Findings of a Ten Nation Survey Conducted byDr. Eric C. ThompsonNational University of SingaporeDr. Chulanee ThianthaiChulalongkorn University
2Overview The history and future of ASEAN Our base-line survey attempts to measure:Attitudes toward ASEANKnowledge about the region and the associationOrientation toward the region and countriesSources of information about the regionAspirations for integration and actionKey findings on a nation-by-nation basisSummary of region wide trends
3Subjects2,170 undergraduate university students (1064 male and 1106 female) from leading universities in each of the ten member nations of ASEANA sample of ~ students per universityAverage Age: 20 years old
4Methods September to November 2007 Survey questionnaires were handed to students from leading universitiesNationUniversityLanguageBruneiUniv. of Brunei DarussalamBahasa MelayuCambodiaRoyal Univ. Phnom PenhKhmerIndonesiaUniversity of IndonesiaBahasa IndonesiaLaosNational Univ. of LaosLaoMalaysiaUniv. of MalayaMyanmarDistance Education StudentsBurmesePhilippinesUniversity of the PhilippinesEnglishSingaporeNational Univ. of SingaporeThailandChulalongkorn Univ.ThaiVietnamVietnam National Univ. (Hanoi)Vietnamese
5Findings: Attitudes toward ASEAN Toward ASEAN as a WholeASEAN-enthusiasmASEAN- positive attitudesASEAN-ambivalenceskepticismCambodia, Laos and VietnamMost common across the regionSingapore and some other countriesMyanmar**Responses from Myanmar were Bi-modal: Positive and Skeptical
6Findings: Attitudes toward ASEAN ASEAN citizenship. Over 75% agreed:Nearly 90% felt that membership in ASEAN is beneficial to their nation and nearly 70 % felt it was beneficial to them personally“ I feel I am a citizen of ASEAN”Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam Strongest AgreementSingapore Myanmar Least Agreement
7Findings: Attitudes toward ASEAN Similarities among ASEAN countriesGreatest sense of similarity: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, IndonesiaLeast sense of similarity: Singapore, Brunei, Myanmar, MalaysiaEconomically and Politically CulturallyDissimilar Similar
8Findings: Knowledge about the region and the Association Overall, students have a strong knowledge about the region and Association“How familiar are you with ASEAN ?”Greatest sense of familiarity: Vietnam, LaosLeast sense of familiarity: Brunei, Singapore, Myanmar
9Findings: Knowledge about the region and the Association Students could list nine out of ten ASEAN countries and identify seven on a map of Southeast Asia.Nearly 75% could identify ASEAN flagOver 80% in all nations, other than Cambodia (63%), Thailand (38%) and Philippines (36%)Nearly 50% could identify year of foundingMost in Laos, Vietnam, IndonesiaLeast in Thailand and Myanmar1967
10Findings: Orientation toward the region and countries Most Salient Countries: Thailand, MalaysiaMost Familiar: Thailand, SingaporeSub-regions: Mainland, MaritimeGenerally, students are most aware and familiar with countries in their own sub-regionWithin Mainland Southeast Asia, other countries are more salient than familiarIn other words, students in Mainland nations feel more familiar with some Maritime countries (Singapore, Malaysia) than with neighbors
11Findings: Orientation toward the region and countries Orientations toward Travel and WorkInterest in knowing about other ASEAN countries. In general, over 90%Strongest in Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, PhilippinesWeakest in MyanmarCategoryCountry RankingsTravel1st Singapore, 2nd Thailand, and 3rd Malaysia, 4th VietnamWork1st Singapore, 2nd Malaysia, Brunei, and Thailand
12Findings: Sources of information about the region Primary Sources:Television, School, Newspapers, BooksSecondary Sources:Internet, RadioOthers Sources:Sports, Advertising, FriendsLeast Important Sources:Family, Travel, Movies, Music, Work
13Findings: Sources of information about the region Notable TrendsEverywhere, Internet rated less important than television and newspapersImportance of Internet reveals a linguistic bias (rather than wealth bias)Media environments differ, for example Radio is especially important in Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos; but not so elsewhere
14Findings: Aspirations for integration and action Economic CooperationTourismDevelopment AssistanceEducational ExchangeSecurity and Military CooperationSportsCultural ExchangePolitical CooperationMost Important to Least Important Aspects of Integration and CooperationAs ranked by “Strong Agreement” of students across the region
15Findings: Aspirations for integration and action Issues Crucial to Cooperation and AwarenessMost important:Poverty ReductionEducation Exchange and ImprovementsScience and Technology DevelopmentModerately important:Natural Resource and Environmental ManagementLow importance:Cultural Preservation and Promotion
16Findings: Aspirations for integration and action Issues Crucial to Cooperation and AwarenessNotable variations across the regionHealth and Disease ControlHigh importance in nations seeing it as a threat (Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore) but low were problems are endemic (Vietnam, Cambodia)Science and Technology DevelopmentVery low importance in Singapore, but high elsewhereDisaster Prevention and Relief; Regional Identity and Solidarity also highly variable
17National SummariesBrunei: Students’ knowledge of the region is very good. Attitudes are mostly positive, sometimes range toward ambivalence. Brunei remains one of the least well known countries.Cambodia: Students are among the strongest ASEAN-enthusiasts. Objective knowledge of the region somewhat less than elsewhere.
18National SummariesIndonesia: Generally positive attitudes toward the region. Responses in the middle range of those region-wide. Some affinity for Malay-Muslim neighbors; but not to exclusion of the rest of the region.Laos: Among the strongest ASEAN-enthusiasts and strongest objective knowledge of ASEAN.
19National SummariesMalaysia: Generally positive attitudes toward ASEAN, with some ambivalence. Overall in the middle-range of region-wide responses.Myanmar: Evidence of two distinct attitudes; Skepticism among a substantial minority, generally positive attitudes among the majority. Weaker knowledge of ASEAN relative to the regional average.
20National SummariesPhilippines: Relatively weak knowledge of the region and Association; but generally positive attitude and interest about the region.Singapore: Trend of ambivalence toward the region. Least likely to see ASEAN members as similar; least likely to see themselves as citizens of ASEAN; below average knowledge about the region. But, rate the benefit of their nation’s membership highly. Singapore also the most desirable destination for travel and work.
21National SummariesThailand: Generally positive attitudes toward the region and Association. Somewhat strong but uneven knowledge about the region and Association.Vietnam: Among the strongest ASEAN-enthusiast and most knowledgeable about the region and Association. Some evidence of Vietnam’s emergence as a site for work and travel (but still less than Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Brunei)
22General SummaryASEAN is in potential if not in fact, more than a diplomatic “talking shop”Students displayHigh knowledge about ASEANPositive attitudes toward ASEANConsider themselves “Citizens” of ASEANStrongest ASEAN-enthusiasm among the newest, least-affluent members (with the exception of Myanmar)
23General Summary Trend to “associate up” and “dissociate down” Trend to see region as a threat in Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore; but not elsewhere.Need for greater familiarity among Mainland nationsHowever, overall there is a strong trend in commonality of responses and overall positive attitude toward ASEAN throughout the region.
24Attitudes and Awareness toward ASEAN: Findings of a Ten Nation Survey Conducted byDr. Eric C. ThompsonNational University of SingaporeDr. Chulanee ThianthaiChulalongkorn University