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What Are You Putting In Your Pits? By Stephanie Bryson, Christina Reap, Christina Ruddick, and Jessica Wardrope.

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Presentation on theme: "What Are You Putting In Your Pits? By Stephanie Bryson, Christina Reap, Christina Ruddick, and Jessica Wardrope."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Are You Putting In Your Pits? By Stephanie Bryson, Christina Reap, Christina Ruddick, and Jessica Wardrope

2 Antiperspirant vs. Deodorant Antiperspirant Antiperspirant Reduces perspiration to prevent odor and clothing stains by forming a plug in sweat ducts Reduces perspiration to prevent odor and clothing stains by forming a plug in sweat ducts Deodorant Deodorant Agent for destroying odors by fighting odor causing bacteria Agent for destroying odors by fighting odor causing bacteria

3 Deodorant Ingredients IngredientPurpose Aluminum chlorohydrate, aluminum zirconium Blocks perspiration by plugging sweat ducts ParabensPreservative TriclosanAntibacterial Propylene glycol Wetting agent, ensures smooth application Polyethylene glycol Used to thicken products and provide “glide” Alcohol Kills bacteria Synthetic perfumes and fragrances Mask odor

4 Why Research Deodorant? Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Aluminum and Alzheimer’s Aluminum and Breast Cancer Aluminum and Breast Cancer Parabens and Breast Cancer Parabens and Breast Cancer Propylene Glycol (alcohols) and contact dermatitis, kidney damage, and liver damage Propylene Glycol (alcohols) and contact dermatitis, kidney damage, and liver damage Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb) Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb)

5 Plan of Action FTIR FTIR Parabens and propylene glycol Parabens and propylene glycol ICP ICP Aluminum, lead, and cadmium Aluminum, lead, and cadmium

6 Antiperspirant/ deodorant samples each Antiperspirant/ deodorant samples each Dissolved in 10mL 6M HNO3 and diluted to 100mL with DI water Dissolved in 10mL 6M HNO3 and diluted to 100mL with DI water Vacuum filtered samples Vacuum filtered samples Aluminum Aluminum Appropriate standard dilutions made (ppm): 500, 300, 100, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, 0.1 Cadmium and Lead Cadmium and Lead Standards (ppm): 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.01, ICP Sample & Standard Prep

7 Aluminum Calibration Curve

8 Lead Calibration Curve

9 Cadmium Calibration Curve

10 Sample X-value (ppm) Arm and Hammer (undetectable) Toms (undetectable) Secret265.3 Lady Speed Stick Gillette Degree Aluminum Results

11 Pb Results Sample X-value (ppm) Arm and Hammer Toms Secret Lady Speed Stick Gillette Degree0.0632

12 Cd Results Sample X-value (ppm) Arm and Hammer Toms Secret Lady Speed Stick Gillette Degree

13 Normal Human Levels The total body burden of aluminum in healthy individuals is 30 to 50 mg. The total body burden of aluminum in healthy individuals is 30 to 50 mg. Approximately 50% of the body burden is in the skeleton and 25% is in the lungs. Approximately 50% of the body burden is in the skeleton and 25% is in the lungs. Aluminum levels in lungs increase with age. Aluminum levels in lungs increase with age. Aluminum levels in bone tissue of healthy individuals range from 5 to 10 mg/kg. Aluminum levels in bone tissue of healthy individuals range from 5 to 10 mg/kg. Serum levels in healthy individuals range from Serum levels in healthy individuals range from 1-3 μg/L. Aluminum in the Body

14 MetalSample mg/“2clicks” of sample Aluminum Secret Secret7.52mg Gillette12.89mg Cadmium Secret mg Gillette mg Lead Gillette0.0022mg Tom’s mg Sample Calculations: 265.3mg × 100mL = 26.53mg = x, x = 7.52mg in Secret 1000mL 1.5g 0.425g mg x 100mL = mg = x, x = 12.89mg in Gillette 1000mL 1.5g 0.425g Daily Exposure of Metals

15 FTIR Why use Infrared Spectroscopy? Why use Infrared Spectroscopy? To detect alcohols, parabens, and other organic materials that may irritate human skin To detect alcohols, parabens, and other organic materials that may irritate human skin Alcohols are used as a wetting agent to ensure smooth application, kill bacteria Alcohols are used as a wetting agent to ensure smooth application, kill bacteria Propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, stearyl alcohol Propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, stearyl alcohol Dries out skin Dries out skin Parabens act as a preservative Parabens act as a preservative Possible link to breast cancer through shaved armpits Possible link to breast cancer through shaved armpits

16 FTIR Procedure A grease plate was used to sample the deodorants A grease plate was used to sample the deodorants Samples were smeared onto the yellow crystal Samples were smeared onto the yellow crystal 16 scans, % T 16 scans, % T Peaks picked based upon structure of paraben and alcohols Peaks picked based upon structure of paraben and alcohols O-H, C-H, C-O, C=O, C-C (aromatic) O-H, C-H, C-O, C=O, C-C (aromatic)

17 FTIR Propylene Glycol Propylene Glycol OH OH CH sp CH sp Parabens Parabens C=O C=O C-O C-O O-H O-H C-C (aromatic) C-C (aromatic)

18 BondCm-1 % T TomsOHCH C-C (aromatic) , , Arm & Ham OHCH C-C (aromatic) C=O , , DegreeOHCHC=O C-C (aromatic) , , Lady Spd Stk CHC=O C-C (aromatic) C-O , , SecretCHC=OC-O GilletteCHC=OC-O

19 TOM’s

20 DEGREE

21 FTIR Observations The organic samples had much larger alcohol peaks than the others The organic samples had much larger alcohol peaks than the others Approximately 25% -100% more alcohol than regular deodorant Approximately 25% -100% more alcohol than regular deodorant Gillette and Speed Stick no detectable alcohol Gillette and Speed Stick no detectable alcohol Indications that Parabens may be present in some samples Indications that Parabens may be present in some samples Speed Stick, Degree, and Arm & Hammer exhibited many peaks associated with paraben structure Speed Stick, Degree, and Arm & Hammer exhibited many peaks associated with paraben structure Other organic ingredients listed Other organic ingredients listed Butyl ether, triethyl citrate, EDTA, cyclopentasiloxane Butyl ether, triethyl citrate, EDTA, cyclopentasiloxane Contain similar functional groups as alcohol & parabens Contain similar functional groups as alcohol & parabens

22 Conclusions Although previous research has indicated a link between breast cancer and Alzheimer’s to parabens and Aluminum found in antiperspirants/deodorants our results can not conclusively determine this link. Although previous research has indicated a link between breast cancer and Alzheimer’s to parabens and Aluminum found in antiperspirants/deodorants our results can not conclusively determine this link. The levels of cadmium and lead are not concentrated enough in the deodorant samples to pose harm to humans. The levels of cadmium and lead are not concentrated enough in the deodorant samples to pose harm to humans. Aluminum may potentially pose a threat from prolonged exposure. Aluminum may potentially pose a threat from prolonged exposure. Additionally, we were not able to conclusively determined that parabens exist in the samples; it can be said that they possibly could be present due to the characteristic peaks shown on the spectra. Additionally, we were not able to conclusively determined that parabens exist in the samples; it can be said that they possibly could be present due to the characteristic peaks shown on the spectra.

23 References ToxGuide for Aluminum. US DHHS ToxGuide for Aluminum. US DHHS inum_in_deodorant inum_in_deodorant ost/pdf?vid=5&hid=13&sid=39da168b-d9c a-d9cb84ea8e9f%40sessionmgr7 ost/pdf?vid=5&hid=13&sid=39da168b-d9c a-d9cb84ea8e9f%40sessionmgr7 chemicals.asp chemicals.asp


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