2Sweat GlandsSweat glands are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands.
3Sweat Glands Eccrine Glands: They are present all over the body and highly concentrated on the palms, soles, forehead and axillae (armpits)Present at birth.Secretion consists mainly of water 99% and small amounts of inorganic and organic salts.Known as the true sweat glands since their main function is to control the body temperature.
4Sweat Glands Apocrine Glands Apocrine sweat glands are mostly concentrated in the axilla, pubic region, and areolas.Glands develop during childhood and its inactive till pubertyTheir secretion is the result of emotional stimuli such as excitements, anger and fear.Produce a more viscous solution than eccrine glands and it consists of fatty acids, amino acids, and some fatty hormones and produces odor when decomposed by bacteria.Presence of hair increases axillary odor, since it acts as a collection site for secretion and bacteria.
5Deodorant & antiprespirant A deodorant is a products applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body and do not reduce wetness .A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, affect odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands.
6Deodorants / Antiperspirants are commonly packaged in: Roll- on.Stick.Aerosols.Gel.Creams and lotions
7AntiperspirantsAre designed to reduce (axillary ) wetness. (astringent and protein precipitant).They classified as drugs (because their mode of action affect a body function).Have a coagulating effect on skin protein so they block the opening of sweat ducts on the skin surface
8DeodorantsAre designed to reduce axillary odor, since this is considered a non-therapeutic purpose and a function of the body is not considered to be altered.They typically contain fragrance to mask body odor so its considered as cosmetics.Bactericide or antiseptics which destroy bacteria and prevent their activity
9AntiperspirantsDeodorantsHas a therapeutic effect (OTC)Has a topical effect (Cosmetics)Reduce amount of sweat secretionDoes not reduce sweat amountContain adsorbent, fragrance, germicide, and astringentContain adsorbent, fragrance and germicideAntiperspirants is deodorantDeodorant is not Antiperspirants.
10Should be not irritant on the skin. Not deteriorate clothing. Properties of deodorants and antiperispirants:Should be not irritant on the skin.Not deteriorate clothing.Safe and non toxicEasy to use and adhere well on skin.
11Composition of Deodorants Fragrance or perfume to disguise offending body odor (e.g. Musk scent from eythylene dodecanedioate).Germicide to destroy odor-producing bacteria.( e.g. long-chain quaternary ammonium salt , zinc salts, phenol such as triclosan, or chemical sush as benzethonium.
12Composition of Antiperspirants They are deodrants that additionally impede the production of perspiration.Active ingredients eg. Aluminum chlorohydrates (Astringents) or aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine complex.(12 – 20%).Mechanism of action: active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat and apocrine glands and insoluble hydroxide gel will be produced in sweat pores and thus physically blocking the release of secretory products by constricting the opening of the sweat gland ducts.
13Composition of Antiperspirants Some aluminum salt solution have a low PH(2-3) this can cause irritation to the skin. By adding a buffering agent to their solution such as urea or borax can raise the PH to 4.They hydrolyze to acid and can damage fabrics. High temperature also causes their hydrolysis and damage fabric (when ironed fabrics without washing them from the antiperspirant).
14Advantages of Aluminium chlorohydrate over other Aluminium salt Good astringent.Have no effect on the skin (non-irritant).Does not have fabrics damage.PH of its Salt 4 – 4.5.But if remain in fabric without washing, heat will hydrolyze it and will damage fabrics.
15Antiperspirant and Deodorant Solution Raw MaterialRole of ActionsAluminium chlorohydrateMain active solution 50%AlcoholTo dissolve perfumeGlycerinEmollientBaroxIncrease PH of the solution & counteract irritation of Aluminium chlorohydratePerfumeDeodorant effectWater
16Quick Drying Lotion Raw Material Role of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrate50%Propylene glycolEmollient & enhance spreadingAlcohol 450 mlHelp quick drying and aids in the solubility of perfumePerfumeBactericideCetrimide or Chlorhexidine diacetateWater
17Creams & Lotions Raw Material Role of Actions Oleyl mono stearate Surface active agentMineral OilPetroleum Jelly semisolidOil phase fatty baseSpermacetifatty base AND hardening agentGlycerinemollient and anti dryingAluminium chlorohydrateAstringent (active ingredients)PerfumeDeodorantMethyl And Propyl hydroxy parabenPreservativewaterAlso we can add antiseptic like Chlorhixidine diacetate
18Roll-On Antiperspirants Consists of Viscous lotions.Packed in a special applicator fitted with a ball at the neck which disperses a film of liquid as it is rolled over the skin. Liquids must flow easily but SHOULD HAVE sufficient viscosity to prevent leakage from the ball head.So thickening agent as methyl cellulose , magnesium aluminum silicate and vegum must be used.Alcohol, propylene glycol or glycerin added to prevent crystallization of the astringent.
19Roll-On Antiperspirants Raw MaterialRole of ActionsAluminium chlorohydrateastringentPropylene glycolprevent crystallization and improve spreadingMethyl celluloseViscosity enhancing agentWaterdisperses and dissolves ingredientsPerfumedeodorantMethyl parahydroxy benzoatePropyl parahydroxy benzoatepreservatives
20Antiperspirants Stick To prepare stick we use sodium stearate as solidifying agent which needs an alkaline PH so Aluminium chlorohydrate is incompatible (with soap used in the preparation of stick (Aluminium chlorohydrate has a low PH ).We use instead of Aluminium chlorohydrate Aluminium chlorhydroxy lactate (high PH compatible with the soap used.But it is ineffective like Aluminium chlorohydrate.it contains also bactericidal and perfume so acts as antiperspirant and deodorant.
21Composition and mechanism of deodorants ExampleMechanismVolatile OilsOdor MaskersPowder (Talc)AdsorbedEg. Quaternary ammoniumAntibacterialBacteriostatic and bactericideSurfactant and antisepticsSubs inhibit enzyme involved inBacterial actionenzyme inhibitorsSubs Inhibit oxidation of fatty Acids to a volatile ingredientsAntioxidants
22Deodorants formulations Powder A simple way of dealing with excessive perspirations is to apply an absorbent powder with or without antiseptic.MaterialQuantityBoric acid (Antiseptic)50 gmLight Mg C03Talc (Adsorbent)900 gmPerfume0.3% to 0.5%
23Cream DeodorantVanishing cream base, containing antibacterial such as Hexachlorophene or quaternary ammonium compound.N.B (The emulsifier of the cream should be compatible with the antiseptic used) eg. Anticeptic is cationic and emulsifier anionic they will react with each other.
24Examples: Raw Materials Role of Actions Hexachlorophene Active ingredients (antiseptics)Glyceryl MonostearateEmulsifying agent (non-ionic)Stearic acid cetyl alcholdOil phase or fatty baseKoHEmulsifierPropylene glycolHumactantWaterVehicle (Aqueous phase)Perfume
25Deodorant StickBase should possess certain solidity or resistance to deformation during warm weather and to be applicable with moderate pressure.NB. Glycerin or propylene glycol forms a clear transparent gel in presence of sodium stearate which acts as a base for deodorant stick.