Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Deodorant & Antiperspirant

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Deodorant & Antiperspirant"— Presentation transcript:

1 Deodorant & Antiperspirant

2 Sweat Glands Sweat glands are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands.

3 Sweat Glands Eccrine Glands:
They are present all over the body and highly concentrated on the palms, soles, forehead and axillae (armpits) Present at birth. Secretion consists mainly of water 99% and small amounts of inorganic and organic salts. Known as the true sweat glands since their main function is to control the body temperature.

4 Sweat Glands Apocrine Glands
Apocrine sweat glands are mostly concentrated in the axilla, pubic region, and areolas. Glands develop during childhood and its inactive till puberty Their secretion is the result of emotional stimuli such as excitements, anger and fear. Produce a more viscous solution than eccrine glands and it consists of fatty acids, amino acids, and some fatty hormones and produces odor when decomposed by bacteria. Presence of hair increases axillary odor, since it acts as a collection site for secretion and bacteria.

5 Deodorant & antiprespirant
A deodorant is a products applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body and do not reduce wetness . A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, affect odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands.

6 Deodorants / Antiperspirants are commonly packaged in:
Roll- on. Stick. Aerosols. Gel. Creams and lotions

7 Antiperspirants Are designed to reduce (axillary ) wetness. (astringent and protein precipitant). They classified as drugs (because their mode of action affect a body function). Have a coagulating effect on skin protein so they block the opening of sweat ducts on the skin surface

8 Deodorants Are designed to reduce axillary odor, since this is considered a non-therapeutic purpose and a function of the body is not considered to be altered. They typically contain fragrance to mask body odor so its considered as cosmetics. Bactericide or antiseptics which destroy bacteria and prevent their activity

9 Antiperspirants Deodorants Has a therapeutic effect (OTC) Has a topical effect (Cosmetics) Reduce amount of sweat secretion Does not reduce sweat amount Contain adsorbent, fragrance, germicide, and astringent Contain adsorbent, fragrance and germicide Antiperspirants is deodorant Deodorant is not Antiperspirants.

10 Should be not irritant on the skin. Not deteriorate clothing.
Properties of deodorants and antiperispirants: Should be not irritant on the skin. Not deteriorate clothing. Safe and non toxic Easy to use and adhere well on skin.

11 Composition of Deodorants
Fragrance or perfume to disguise offending body odor (e.g. Musk scent from eythylene dodecanedioate). Germicide to destroy odor-producing bacteria.( e.g. long-chain quaternary ammonium salt , zinc salts, phenol such as triclosan, or chemical sush as benzethonium.

12 Composition of Antiperspirants
They are deodrants that additionally impede the production of perspiration. Active ingredients eg. Aluminum chlorohydrates (Astringents) or aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine complex.(12 – 20%). Mechanism of action: active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat and apocrine glands and insoluble hydroxide gel will be produced in sweat pores and thus physically blocking the release of secretory products by constricting the opening of the sweat gland ducts.

13 Composition of Antiperspirants
Some aluminum salt solution have a low PH(2-3) this can cause irritation to the skin. By adding a buffering agent to their solution such as urea or borax can raise the PH to 4. They hydrolyze to acid and can damage fabrics. High temperature also causes their hydrolysis and damage fabric (when ironed fabrics without washing them from the antiperspirant).

14 Advantages of Aluminium chlorohydrate over other Aluminium salt
Good astringent. Have no effect on the skin (non-irritant). Does not have fabrics damage. PH of its Salt 4 – 4.5. But if remain in fabric without washing, heat will hydrolyze it and will damage fabrics.

15 Antiperspirant and Deodorant Solution
Raw Material Role of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrate Main active solution 50% Alcohol To dissolve perfume Glycerin Emollient Barox Increase PH of the solution & counteract irritation of Aluminium chlorohydrate Perfume Deodorant effect Water

16 Quick Drying Lotion Raw Material Role of Actions
Aluminium chlorohydrate 50% Propylene glycol Emollient & enhance spreading Alcohol 450 ml Help quick drying and aids in the solubility of perfume Perfume Bactericide Cetrimide or Chlorhexidine diacetate Water

17 Creams & Lotions Raw Material Role of Actions Oleyl mono stearate
Surface active agent Mineral Oil Petroleum Jelly semisolid Oil phase fatty base Spermaceti fatty base AND hardening agent Glycerin emollient and anti drying Aluminium chlorohydrate Astringent (active ingredients) Perfume Deodorant Methyl And Propyl hydroxy paraben Preservative water Also we can add antiseptic like Chlorhixidine diacetate

18 Roll-On Antiperspirants
Consists of Viscous lotions. Packed in a special applicator fitted with a ball at the neck which disperses a film of liquid as it is rolled over the skin. Liquids must flow easily but SHOULD HAVE sufficient viscosity to prevent leakage from the ball head. So thickening agent as methyl cellulose , magnesium aluminum silicate and vegum must be used. Alcohol, propylene glycol or glycerin added to prevent crystallization of the astringent.

19 Roll-On Antiperspirants
Raw Material Role of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrate astringent Propylene glycol prevent crystallization and improve spreading Methyl cellulose Viscosity enhancing agent Water disperses and dissolves ingredients Perfume deodorant Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Propyl parahydroxy benzoate preservatives

20 Antiperspirants Stick
To prepare stick we use sodium stearate as solidifying agent which needs an alkaline PH so Aluminium chlorohydrate is incompatible (with soap used in the preparation of stick (Aluminium chlorohydrate has a low PH ). We use instead of Aluminium chlorohydrate Aluminium chlorhydroxy lactate (high PH compatible with the soap used. But it is ineffective like Aluminium chlorohydrate. it contains also bactericidal and perfume so acts as antiperspirant and deodorant.

21 Composition and mechanism of deodorants
Example Mechanism Volatile Oils Odor Maskers Powder (Talc) Adsorbed Eg. Quaternary ammonium Antibacterial Bacteriostatic and bactericide Surfactant and antiseptics Subs inhibit enzyme involved in Bacterial action enzyme inhibitors Subs Inhibit oxidation of fatty Acids to a volatile ingredients Antioxidants

22 Deodorants formulations
Powder A simple way of dealing with excessive perspirations is to apply an absorbent powder with or without antiseptic. Material Quantity Boric acid (Antiseptic) 50 gm Light Mg C03 Talc (Adsorbent) 900 gm Perfume 0.3% to 0.5%

23 Cream Deodorant Vanishing cream base, containing antibacterial such as Hexachlorophene or quaternary ammonium compound. N.B (The emulsifier of the cream should be compatible with the antiseptic used) eg. Anticeptic is cationic and emulsifier anionic they will react with each other.

24 Examples: Raw Materials Role of Actions Hexachlorophene
Active ingredients (antiseptics) Glyceryl Monostearate Emulsifying agent (non-ionic) Stearic acid cetyl alchold Oil phase or fatty base KoH Emulsifier Propylene glycol Humactant Water Vehicle (Aqueous phase) Perfume

25 Deodorant Stick Base should possess certain solidity or resistance to deformation during warm weather and to be applicable with moderate pressure. NB. Glycerin or propylene glycol forms a clear transparent gel in presence of sodium stearate which acts as a base for deodorant stick.

26 Example: Rx Sodium stearate Alcohol Propylene glycol Hexachlorophene

Download ppt "Deodorant & Antiperspirant"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google