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Sweat glands are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands.

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Presentation on theme: "Sweat glands are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands."— Presentation transcript:


2 Sweat glands are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands: Eccrine glands and apocrine glands.

3 Eccrine Glands:  They are present all over the body and highly concentrated on the palms, soles, forehead and axillae (armpits)  Present at birth.  Secretion consists mainly of water 99% and small amounts of inorganic and organic salts.  Known as the true sweat glands since their main function is to control the body temperature.

4 Apocrine Glands  Apocrine sweat glands are mostly concentrated in the axilla, pubic region, and areolas.  Glands develop during childhood and its inactive till puberty  Their secretion is the result of emotional stimuli such as excitements, anger and fear.  Produce a more viscous solution than eccrine glands and it consists of fatty acids, amino acids, and some fatty hormones and produces odor when decomposed by bacteria.  Presence of hair increases axillary odor, since it acts as a collection site for secretion and bacteria.

5  A deodorant is a products applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body and do not reduce wetness.  A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, affect odor as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands.

6  Roll- on.  Stick.  Aerosols.  Gel.  Creams and lotions

7  Are designed to reduce (axillary ) wetness. (astringent and protein precipitant).  They classified as drugs (because their mode of action affect a body function).  Have a coagulating effect on skin protein so they block the opening of sweat ducts on the skin surface

8  Are designed to reduce axillary odor, since this is considered a non-therapeutic purpose and a function of the body is not considered to be altered.  They typically contain fragrance to mask body odor so its considered as cosmetics.  Bactericide or antiseptics which destroy bacteria and prevent their activity

9 AntiperspirantsDeodorants - Has a therapeutic effect (OTC) - Has a topical effect (Cosmetics) - Reduce amount of sweat secretion - Does not reduce sweat amount - Contain a dsorbent, fragrance, germicide, and astringent - Contain adsorbent, fragrance and germicide - Antiperspirants is deodorant - Deodorant is not Antiperspirants.

10 Properties of deodorants and antiperispirants:  Should be not irritant on the skin.  Not deteriorate clothing.  Safe and non toxic  Easy to use and adhere well on skin.

11  Fragrance or perfume to disguise offending body odor (e.g. Musk scent from eythylene dodecanedioate).  Germicide to destroy odor-producing bacteria.( e.g. long-chain quaternary ammonium salt, zinc salts, phenol such as triclosan, or chemical sush as benzethonium.

12  They are deodrants that additionally impede the production of perspiration.  Active ingredients eg. Aluminum chlorohydrates (Astringents) or aluminum zirconium tetrachlorohydrex glycine complex.(12 – 20%).  Mechanism of action: active ingredient will diffuse into the sweat and apocrine glands and insoluble hydroxide gel will be produced in sweat pores and thus physically blocking the release of secretory products by constricting the opening of the sweat gland ducts.

13  Some aluminum salt solution have a low PH(2-3) this can cause irritation to the skin. By adding a buffering agent to their solution such as urea or borax can raise the PH to 4.  They hydrolyze to acid and can damage fabrics. High temperature also causes their hydrolysis and damage fabric (when ironed fabrics without washing them from the antiperspirant).

14  Good astringent.  Have no effect on the skin (non-irritant).  Does not have fabrics damage.  PH of its Salt 4 – 4.5.  But if remain in fabric without washing, heat will hydrolyze it and will damage fabrics.

15 Raw MaterialRole of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrateMain active solution 50% AlcoholTo dissolve perfume GlycerinEmollient BaroxIncrease PH of the solution & counteract irritation of Aluminium chlorohydrate PerfumeDeodorant effect Water

16 Raw MaterialRole of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrate50% Propylene glycolEmollient & enhance spreading Alcohol 450 mlHelp quick drying and aids in the solubility of perfume Perfume BactericideCetrimide or Chlorhexidine diacetate Water

17 Raw MaterialRole of Actions Oleyl mono stearateSurface active agent Mineral Oil Petroleum Jelly semisolid Oil phase fatty base Spermacetifatty base AND hardening agent Glycerinemollient and anti drying Aluminium chlorohydrateAstringent (active ingredients) PerfumeDeodorant Methyl And Propyl hydroxy parabenPreservative water Also we can add antiseptic like Chlorhixidine diacetate

18  Consists of Viscous lotions.  Packed in a special applicator fitted with a ball at the neck which disperses a film of liquid as it is rolled over the skin. Liquids must flow easily but SHOULD HAVE sufficient viscosity to prevent leakage from the ball head.  So thickening agent as methyl cellulose, magnesium aluminum silicate and vegum must be used.  Alcohol, propylene glycol or glycerin added to prevent crystallization of the astringent.

19  Raw MaterialRole of Actions Aluminium chlorohydrateastringent Propylene glycolprevent crystallization and improve spreading Methyl celluloseViscosity enhancing agent Waterdisperses and dissolves ingredients Perfumedeodorant Methyl parahydroxy benzoate Propyl parahydroxy benzoate preservatives

20  To prepare stick we use sodium stearate as solidifying agent which needs an alkaline PH so Aluminium chlorohydrate is incompatible (with soap used in the preparation of stick (Aluminium chlorohydrate has a low PH ).  We use instead of Aluminium chlorohydrate Aluminium chlorhydroxy lactate (high PH compatible with the soap used.  But it is ineffective like Aluminium chlorohydrate.  it contains also bactericidal and perfume so acts as antiperspirant and deodorant.

21 ExampleMechanism Volatile OilsOdor Maskers Powder (Talc)Adsorbed Eg. Quaternary ammoniumAntibacterial Bacteriostatic and bactericideSurfactant and antiseptics Subs inhibit enzyme involved in Bacterial action enzyme inhibitors Subs Inhibit oxidation of fatty Acids to a volatile ingredients Antioxidants

22  Powder A simple way of dealing with excessive perspirations is to apply an absorbent powder with or without antiseptic. MaterialQuantity Boric acid (Antiseptic)50 gm Light Mg C0350 gm Talc (Adsorbent)900 gm Perfume0.3% to 0.5%

23  Vanishing cream base, containing antibacterial such as Hexachlorophene or quaternary ammonium compound.  N.B (The emulsifier of the cream should be compatible with the antiseptic used) eg. Anticeptic is cationic and emulsifier anionic they will react with each other.

24 Raw MaterialsRole of Actions HexachloropheneActive ingredients (antiseptics) Glyceryl MonostearateEmulsifying agent (non-ionic) Stearic acid cetyl alcholdOil phase or fatty base KoHEmulsifier Propylene glycolHumactant WaterVehicle (Aqueous phase) Perfume Examples:

25  NB. Glycerin or propylene glycol forms a clear transparent gel in presence of sodium stearate which acts as a base for deodorant stick. o Base should possess certain solidity or resistance to deformation during warm weather and to be applicable with moderate pressure.

26 Example: Rx Sodium stearate Alcohol Propylene glycol Hexachlorophene Perfume

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