Presentation on theme: "GABBY PILLA & CAITLIN VERHALEN DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL AND ANION CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER SAMPLES."— Presentation transcript:
GABBY PILLA & CAITLIN VERHALEN DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL AND ANION CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER SAMPLES
BACKGROUND Determination of contaminants in environmental, biological and food samples requires significant attention Some elements or their compounds have toxic or nutritional effects Regular monitoring of contaminant concentrations is required ICP and IC can be used for determination of various contaminants in water samples.
BACKGROUND Lead and copper enter water systems primarily through plumbing materials Can lead to symptoms ranging from stomach distress to brain damage An accumulation of cadmium in the body can affect several organ systems; nervous, gastrointestinal, reproductive and skeletal and biochemical activities. Health risks associated with arsenic include severe poisoning and carcinogenic, most importantly cancer of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Fluoride can cause fluorosis or bone disease (Raja et al. 2013).
United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: ¹Maximum contaminant level Anion¹MCLHealth Effects Fluoride2.0 mg/LBone disease Chloride250 mg/LToxicity has not been observed but reported to produce hypertension Nitrite1 mg/LCauses blue baby syndrome and shortness of breath in infants <6 months BromideNo limitsNo adverse health effects Nitrate10 mg/LCauses blue baby syndrome and shortness of breath in infants <6 months Phosphate5 mg/LNo adverse health effects Sulfate250 mg/LOccurs naturally, when very high it can cause diarrhea Contaminant¹MCLHealth Effects Aluminum0.05-0.2 mg/L No evidence suggests it is harmful; has been reported to cause dementia Arsenic0.010 mg/L Skin damage, problems with circulatory system, increase risk of getting cancer Cadmium0.005 mg/LKidney damage Lead0 Kidney problems, high blood pressure, physical or mental developmental delays in children Antimony0.006 mg/LIncrease in blood cholesterol, decrease in blood sugar ¹Maximum contaminant level
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to investigate whether purified or filtered water contains less toxic materials than tap water. Hypothesis: Store brand filters or water bottles will contain higher concentrations of contaminants compared to name brand filters or water bottles
SAMPLES & ANALYTES ICPIC SampleAnalyte Brita FilterAluminumFluoride Store FilterArsenicChloride Leading BottleCadmiumNitrite Store BottleLeadBromide Tap WaterAntimonyNitrate Phosphate Sulfate
METHOD- ICP 3 standards for the metals were prepared with dilution method: 10 ppm = 1 ml of 1000 ppm stock solution 100 ml DI water 10, 30, 50 ppm Standards and 5 water samples were analyzed For each contaminant two wavelengths were chosen to be analyzed Calibration curves were created for each contaminant for the two wavelengths separately and then averaged
METHOD- IC 7 anion standard ran after instrument equilibration Regenerant was prepared and refilled, allowing for production of a better spectrum 5 samples ran and compared to the 7 anion standard spectrum
DATA- ICP Water Sample Aluminum (ppm) Arsenic (ppm) Cadmium (ppm) Lead (ppm) Antimony (ppm) Brita Filter1.9670.676-0.8072.96112.937 Store Filter2.4660.497-0.8112.9435.911 Leading Bottle1.9660.482-0.8152.9584.647 Store Bottle1.9660.471-0.8232.9314.257 Tap Water2.0000.462-0.8232.9694.118
DATA- IC Sample Fluoride (ppm) Chloride (ppm) Nitrite (ppm) Bromide (ppm) Nitrate (ppm) Phosphat e (ppm) Sulfate (ppm) Standard 1111111 Brita N/A0.8610.206N/A 0.119 Store Brita 0.0400.7140.0380.0290.1450.0370.159 Leading bottle N/A0.155N/A 0.003 Store Bottle N/A0.0270.003N/A 0.0020.006 Tap Water 0.1200.8640.0700.0880.234N/A0.199
DISCUSSION- ICP Aluminum, Arsenic, Lead, and Antimony levels are all high for each water sample Store brand filter contained the highest aluminum levels Brita filtered water contained the highest arsenic levels Tap contained the highest lead levels although they were all very close in concentration Brita filtered water contained the highest antimony levels Cadmium levels were safe for each water sample
DISCUSSION- ICP Possible risks for those in who encounter these contaminants: Skin damage Circulatory system problems Increase risk of getting cancer Kidney problems High blood pressure High blood cholesterol Low blood sugar
DISCUSSION- IC No levels exceeded the acceptable maximum contaminant level. Therefore, no one is at risk for adverse health effects. The store bought filter contained all of the anions though they were at acceptable levels. The leading water bottle contained the least amount of anions. The water bottle samples contained the lowest concentration of anions compared to the Brita, store filter, and tap water.
CONCLUSION Hypothesis was rejected based on ICP data: Name brand filters and water bottles contained higher levels of contaminants versus store brand filters and water bottles Cheaper is better!
REFERENCES United State Environmental Protection Agency. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria. http://water.epa.gov/scitech/swquidance/standards/current/index. cfm (accessed May 10, 2013). Gholivand, M., Pourhossein, A., & Shahlaei, M. Simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium in environmental water and tea samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. 2011 Turkish Journal Of Chemistry, 35(6), 839-846 Raja, I. A., Khan, M. Y., Khan, N. A., Wani, M. R., & Bhat, A. A. Assessment Of Some Metals In The Drinking Water Of Dal Lake Kashmir. 2013. Nature & Science, 11(3), 63-64.