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Antiperspirants and Deodorants Instructor: Ms. Yassen Qawasmi Prepared by : Wala’ Abu-3isheh Bayyan Dwayyat.

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Presentation on theme: "Antiperspirants and Deodorants Instructor: Ms. Yassen Qawasmi Prepared by : Wala’ Abu-3isheh Bayyan Dwayyat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Antiperspirants and Deodorants Instructor: Ms. Yassen Qawasmi Prepared by : Wala’ Abu-3isheh Bayyan Dwayyat

2 Definition sweating Perspiration (sweating, transpiration, or diaphoresis) is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. In humans, sweating is primarily a means of thermoregulation which is achieved by the water- rich secretion of the eccrine glands. Maximum sweat rates of an adult can be up to 2-4 liters per hour or 10-14 liters per day (10-15 g/minm²), but is less in children prior to puberty.[2][3][4] Evaporation of sweat from the skin surface has a cooling effect due to evaporative cooling. Hence, in hot weather, or when the individual's muscles heat up due to exertion, more sweat is produced.

3 The causes of perspiration & body odour –The skin contains a number of different glands which secrete liquids, commonly called sweat or perspiration, onto the skin surface through pores. One of the glands, the Eccrine gland, is found over almost the entire body and its secretion is mainly water with dissolved salts (eg, sodium chloride) and other organic materials. These glands are active from birth and when we get hot, excited or nervous they release their secretion onto the skin where it evaporates. Because the armpit is a partially enclosed area of the body perspiration can build up leading to a 'sweaty' underarm feeling and wet marks on clothing. Another relevant gland is the Apocrine gland, mainly found in the armpit and genital areas of the body. These glands are only active from puberty and release small amounts of a complex secretion when we are under stress or excited. Hence the armpit is a moist environment fed with secretions from the glands. This makes it particularly suitable for the bacteria naturally present on the skin to grow. When sweat is released it doesn't have an odour but bacteria break down materials in the sweat resulting in the.body odour smell or BO which most people find unpleasant

4 Sweat glands 1. An apocrine sweat gland is a sweat gland composed of a coiled secretory portion located at the junction of the dermis and subcutaneous fat, from which a straight portion inserts and secretes into the infundibular portion of the hair follicle. In humans, apocrine sweat glands are found only in certain locations of the body: the axillae (armpits), areola and nipples of the breast, ear canal, eyelids, wings of the nostril, perianal region, and some parts of the external genitalia. Modified apocrine glands include the ciliary glands in the eyelids; the ceruminous glands, which produce ear wax; and the mammary glands, which produce milk. The rest of the body is covered by eccrine sweat glands.

5 2. Eccrine glands sometimes called merocrine glands) are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin. They produce a clear, odorless substance, consisting primarily of water and NaCl. NaCl is reabsorbed in the duct to reduce salt loss. They are active in thermoregulation and emotional sweating (induced by anxiety, fear, stress, and pain). The white sediment in otherwise colorless eccrine secretions is caused by evaporation that increases the concentration of salts


7 components of sweat Ethnicity: hypotonic liquid form of blood plasma. Acidic substance which is the degree of acidity is between 4 and 6. It consists mainly of 99% water and some mineral salts, which are sodium chloride, potassium, and bicarbonate. It also contains inorganic compounds such as lactic acid, urea, and ammonia. Agaytamen and c, and medicine. Secreted by sweat glands

8 Sweating mechanism Produce sweat in humans through the sweat glands that have a role in regulating body temperature, through cooling by evaporating sweat on the skin surface and numbering in the skin 2-4 million almost a secrete sweat under the influence of the nervous system future friendly by the neurotransmitter Asetayl Colin kept under hypothalamus - a part of the brain has its center of regulating body temperature - at body temperature constant and receives this segment signals pulsed blood warm and receptors of heat in the body and then sends signals through the nerves to the sweat glands, which in turn produces sweat as works of nervous tension the excitement also urged the sweat glands, especially those in the hands and armpits.


10 The difference between a deodorant & an anti-perspirant Deodorant products counteract the formation of unpleasant body odour. They principally work by controlling the growth of bacteria on the skin surface but also contain perfume which can help overcome body odour and give a pleasing fragrance. These products do not affect sweating. Examples are LYNX Body Spray and IMPULSE fragrances which give quality fragrances with the reassurance of an effective deodorant. Anti-perspirant products reduce the amount of sweat released to keep the armpit dry and comfortable. The action of the anti-perspirant ingredients also helps to control the growth of bacteria. This, together with the effect of the perfume, means that they work as effective deodorants. Hence, anti-perspirants are usually labelled as anti-perspirant deodorants as they perform both functions. Example products are the REXONA and DOVE brand products, which give highly efficient protection from wetness and odour

11 What ingredients are in antiperspirants and deodorants? 1. Alcohol antiperspirants and deodorants are often dissolved in alcohol because it dries quickly once applied to the skin an immediate sense of coolness 2. Aluminium salts Aluminium salts are the active ingredient in antiperspirants. They work to reduce the flow of sweat from the sweat gland to the skin surface.

12 3. Antimicrobials The skin is home to natural bacteria that like to feed on sweat but as a result, produce bad smells. In occluded areas, such as the underarm, there are about 1 million bacteria per square centimetre. By lowering the number of bacteria on the skin, body odour can also be reduced. Antimicrobials agents kill bacteria and also slow their growth so that stay you odour- free for longer 4. Fragrance and skin conditioners Perfumes and fragrances are used in most deodorants and antiperspirants in order to mask body odour and provide a feeling of freshness to the user. Virtually all antiperspirant and deodorant products contain some emollient oils to soothe and soften the skin..

13 5. Carrier substances In order for antiperspirants to be effectively applied to the skin, they need to be held in some kind of carrying structure - whether that be the liquids used in aerosols or the solids used in sticks. Water is used in a range of antiperspirants as a carrier for other ingredients as it adds fluidity to roll-ons and creams and helps the product spread onto the skin. In aerosol products the active ingredients are held in a neutral liquid which enables them to be easily sprayed onto the skin. This liquid (commonly cyclomethicone) is often combined with a slightly denser mineral clay-like substance (disteardimonium hectorite) which provides structure to the antiperspirant and stops heavier ingredients sinking to the bottom. Likewise, solid antiperspirant and deodorant products contain an agent which provides structure and prevents the ingredients from separating out. This structure can be provided by a combination of ingredients including hydrogenated castor oil, glycerol fats (triglycerides) and stearyl alcohol. Some antiperspirant products also include an ingredient called PEG-8 distearate, which makes it easier to wash the product off in the bath or shower at the end of the day.

14 6. Parabens Parabens are a type of preservative found in many personal care products. The vast majority of antiperspirants and deodorants do not contain parabens because antiperspirants and deodorants are generally self-preserving. 7. Propellants Aerosol antiperspirants and deodorants are designed to work via a thin film which is propelled onto the skin. To create this film, products contain low, medium and high pressure propellants which produce a strong, but comfortable, spray to reach the skin. These propellants are commonly butane, isobutane and propane

15 How Do Deodorants Work? Perspiration itself is almost odorless. Most of the odor that accompanies perspiration is caused by the action of bacteria. Deodorants reduce this odor in one of three ways: by preventing the action of bacteria on the perspiration, by preventing the secretion of perspiration, or by masking the offensive odor with a pleasant one. Deodorants that kill or inactivate bacteria contain antiseptic substances, such as alcohol, formaldehyde, and boric acid. Chlorine compounds, e.g. hypochlorite and chlorhexidine, work by killing bacteria which may be responsible for the odor. Deodorants that mask perspiration odor contain perfumes. Essential oils and such disinfectants as carbolic acid simply mask the odor, making it less offensive.

16 How do antiperspirants work? Aluminium-based antiperspirants work by blocking the sweat ducts, thereby reducing the amount of sweat that reaches the skin’s surface. Aluminium salts are soluble as long as the formulation is acidic (low pH). When they are applied to skin and come in contact with sweat, the pH rises causing the aluminium salts to precipitate out and form a plug over the sweat glands. Sweat continues to be produced by the sweat gland but it just isn't able to reach the surface of the skin. Diphemanil methylsulfate is a drug that opposes the action of the parasympathetic nerves that control sweat production.


18 Healthy effect 1. Aluminum toxicity aluminum itself adversely affects the blood–brain barrier, is capable of causing DNA damage, and has adverse epigenetic effects 2. Breast cancer 2004 and 2005 studies led by researcher Philippa Darbre, hypothesizes that particular substances in deodorants, such as preservatives called parabens, or bolts such as aluminum chloride used in antiperspirants, get into the bloodstream or accumulate in breast tissue, where they enhance or emulate the effects of estrogen, which stimulates the growth of cancerous breast cells

19 3. Renal dysfunction The agency warns people with renal dysfunction to consult a doctor before using antiperspirants containing aluminum 4. Deodorant crystals containing synthetically made potassium alum were found to be a weak irritant to the skin. Alcohol-free deodorant is available for those with sensitive skin.


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