39.1 Carbon CompoundsOrganic compounds – are compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen, often combined with a few other elements such as oxygen and nitrogen.90% of all known compounds
4Forms of Carbon Diamond – Hardest substance on Earth! Is a network solid, all the atoms are linked by covalent bonds. It is a single molecule.Covalent bonds connect each carbon to four other carbon atoms.
5Graphite – Extremely soft and slippery. Widely spaced layersIn each layer, each carbon atom forms strong covalent bonds with three other carbon atoms.Between each layer bonds are weak.Pencil Lead
6Fullerenes – Large hollow spheres. Found in meteorites.Alternating hexagons and pentagons.60 carbon atoms
7Saturated Hydorcarbons Hydrocarbon – an organic compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon.Saturated hydrocarbon – all of the bonds are single bonds.Maximum numberof hydrogens foreach carbon.Other name is Alkane.
14What are the three forms of Carbon? Describe each form. Bellwork -What are the three forms of Carbon?Describe each form.
159.2 Substituted Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an atom or group of atoms is a substituted hydrocarbon.The substituted atom or group of atoms is called a functional group because it determines the properties or function of the compound.
16AlcoholThe functional group in an alcohol is a hydroxyl group, -OH.Organic AcidsThe functional group in organic acids is a carboxyl group, -COOHOrganic acids have sharp tastes and strong odors. (Vinegar)
17Organic Base Esters Amines are organic bases. The functional group in an amine is an amino group, -NH2.Amines play a vital role in life.EstersThe functional group of an ester is an inorganic or organic acid.Account for flavors of many foods and pleasant aroma of many flowers.Butyl butyratepineappleMethyl phenylacetatehoneyEthyl acetatenail polish remover, model paint, model airplane glueEthyl lactatebutter, cream
20An unknown compound has no noticeable odor An unknown compound has no noticeable odor. Explain why the compound is unlikely to be an organic acid, an organic base, or an ester.
219.3 Organic Compounds in the Human Body Four types of compounds produced in plant and animal cells:StarchesCelluloseNucleic AcidsProteins
22Starches AKA – Sugars Simple sugar formula – C6H12O6 Exist as straight chains or ringsCarbohydrates are made up of simple sugars, more complex sugars, and polymers.
23Proteins Organic Acids (-COOH)/Organic Bases (-NH2) An amino acid is a compound that contains both a carboxyl and amino functional groups in the same molecule.There are 20 amino acids that your body needs to function.
25Your cells can manufacture some, but not all, of the amino acids. Your cells use amino acids, to form polymers called Proteins.A protein is a polymer in which at least 100 amino acids are linked through bonds between an amino group and a carboxyl group.
26The instructions for building proteins are stored in your DNA.
28Nucleic Acids Store information about cell structure and function. Nucleic acids are large nitrogen containing polymers found mainly in the nuclei of cells.Two types:Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)