2Organic CompoundsCompounds that contain Carbon are called organic compounds (with the exception of few).Many organic compounds have similar Properties such as:Low melting point, low boiling pointDo not conduct electric currentDo not dissolve in waterThey are liquids or gases at room temperatureThey have strong odor
3HydrocarbonsAre compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen.Properties of Hydrocarbons:1. Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water2. Hydrocarbons are flammable.Chemical Formulas of Hydrocarbons:Methane CH4Ethane C2H6Propane C3H8
4Structure of Hydrocarbons The Carbon chain in a hydrocarbon may be straight, branched or ring-shaped.Each hydrocarbon has its structural formula; its kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule.Isomers; are compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formula.
5Double bond and triple bond: in addition to forming a single bond, two carbon atoms can form double or triple bonds.Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbon with all of its carbon atoms having single bonds it is a saturated hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbon.
6Substituted Hydrocarbon If just one atom of another element is substituted for a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, a different compound is created.Compounds containing halogens when one or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms.Alcohols When OH (hydroxyl group) replaces hydrogen atoms.Organic Acids When COOH (Carboxyl group) replaces Hydrogen atom.
7Esters and PolymersEster is a compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid. Many esters have pleasant fruity smell.Polymers are long chains of organic compounds made up of thousands or even millions of atoms.