2Saturated Hydrocarbons A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon.In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds.Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.
4Characteristics of Hydrocarbons Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are:The number of carbon atomsHow the atoms are arranged:Straight chainBranched chainRing
5Straight Chains One carbon Methane Two carbon ethane Three carbon A hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in celluloseOne carbonMethaneTwo carbonethaneThree carbonpropaneFour carbonbutaneFive carbonspentaneSix carbonhexane
7Branched Chains The structural formula for certain alkanes can differ. Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are isomers.
8The RingCarbons can be arranged in a ring, such as cyclobutane.
9Unsaturated Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon that contains one or more double or triple bonds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.There are three types of unsaturated hydrocarbons alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
10AlkenesMany fruit bearing plants produce ethene, which controls the rate at which fruits ripening.
11Alkynes Alkynes are the most reactive hydrocarbon compounds. They produce extremely high temperatures while burning.
12Aromatic Hydrocarbons These alternating single and double bond hydrocarbons form a ring.Many of these compounds have strong aromas or odors.
13Fossil FuelsThree types of fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and natural gas.The primary products of the complete combustion of fossil fuels are carbon dioxide and water
14Substituted Hydrocarbons The functional group in an alcohol is a hydroxyl group, -OH.The functional group in an organic acid is a carboxyl group,-COOH.The functional group in an amine is an amino group, -NH2
15AlcoholsWhen a halocarbon reacts with a hydroxyl group.
16PolymersPolymers can be classified as natural polymers or synthetic polymers.Rubber, nylon, and polyethylene are three examples of compounds than can be synthesized.
17Types Four types of polymers produced in plant and animal cells are: StarchesCelluloseNucleic acidsProteins