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Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry. Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Standards Standards 6.a – Students know that carbon, because.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry. Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Standards Standards 6.a – Students know that carbon, because."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry

2 Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Section 1 – Properties of Carbon Standards Standards 6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms

3 Carbon Atoms and Bonding Because of its unique ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, carbon has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms

4 Forms of Pure Carbon Diamond, graphite, fullerenes and nanotubes are four forms of the element carbon Diamond – crystalline form of carbon in which each carbon atom is bonded strongly to four other carbon atoms Formed from high temps and pressure Melting point is more than 3500 C

5 Forms of Pure Carbon Graphite – each carbon atom is bonded tightly to three other carbon atoms in flat layers Bonds are very weak Bonds are very weak “Lead” in pencils is mostly graphite “Lead” in pencils is mostly graphite

6 Forms of Pure Carbon Fullerenes – consists of carbon atoms arranged in the shape of a hollow sphere Called buckyballs after an architect Called buckyballs after an architect Nanotube – carbon atoms are arranged in the shape of a long, hollow cylinder Tiny, light, flexible and extremely strong Tiny, light, flexible and extremely strong

7 Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry Section 2 – Carbon Compounds Section 2 – Carbon Compounds Standards Standards 3.c – Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers 6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms

8 Organic Compounds Organic compounds – compounds that contain carbon Many organic compounds have similar properties in terms of melting and boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity and solubility Many are gases at room temperature Many are gases at room temperature Many have a strong odor Many have a strong odor Many do not dissolve in water Many do not dissolve in water

9 Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon – compound that contains only the elements carbon and hydrogen Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water All hydrocarbons are flammable

10 Structure of Hydrocarbons The carbon chains in the hydrocarbon may be straight, branched or ring-shaped Structural formula – shows the kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule Isomer – compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formulas C 4 H 10

11 Structure of Hydrocarbons Saturated hydrocarbons – only single bonds, has maximum number a hydrogen atoms attached Unsaturated hydrocarbons – has double or triple bonds, have fewer hydrogen than saturated hydrocarbons

12 Structure of Hydrocarbons Substituted hydrocarbon – atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon Alcohol – a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups hydroxyl group –OH Organic acid – a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more carboxyl groups carboxyl group –COOH Ester – compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid

13 Polymers Polymer – large molecule made of a chain of many smaller molecules bonded together Monomer – smaller molecules that make up polymers

14 Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry Section 3 – Polymers and Composites Section 3 – Polymers and Composites Standards Standards 3.c – Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers 6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms

15 Forming Polymers Polymers form when chemical bonds link larger numbers of monomers in a repeating pattern

16 Polymers and Composites Proteins – formed from smaller molecules called amino acids Amino acid – a monomer that is a building block of proteins The properties of a protein depend on which amino acids are used and in what order Examples – finger nails, spider web

17 Polymers and Composites Composites – combines two or more substances in a new material with different properties Many composite materials include one or more polymers Examples – fishing rods, snow boards

18 Recycling Plastics Plastics do not react easily with other materials, so they do not break down quickly You can help reduce the amount of plastic waste by recycling

19 Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry Section 4 – Life with Carbon Standards 6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms 6.b – Students know that living organisms are made of molecules

20 Carbohydrates Carbohydrate – an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Simple carbohydrate – the simplest carbs are sugars (glucose is in your body – C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Complex carbohydrate – a polymer made of smaller molecules that are simple carbs bonded to one another

21 Proteins Proteins – formed from smaller molecules called amino acids Amino acid – a monomer that is a building block of proteins Each amino acid molecule has a carboxyl group (–COOH) and an amino group (–NH 2 ) The body uses proteins from food to build and repair body parts and to regulate cell activities The body uses proteins from food to build and repair body parts and to regulate cell activities

22 Lipids Lipids – energy-rich compounds made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen Lipids include fats, oils, waxes and cholesterol Gram for gram, lipids release twice as much energy in your body as do carbohydrates Fatty acids – organic compound that is a monomer of a fat or oil Cholesterol – a waxy lipid in animal cells

23 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids – very large organic molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus Two types – DNA and RNA Elements that make up all living things… C – Carbon H – Hydrogen N – Nitrogen O – Oxygen P – Phosphorus S – Sulfur

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