2Criteria for Kingdom Plantae Cell type: Eukaryotes.Cell number: Multicellular.Cell structure: Cell wall made of cellulose.Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic.Carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b.Some are parasitic or saprobes.
3Plant Life CycleAll plants have a life cycle with alternation of generations, in which the haploid gametophyte phase alternates with the diploid sporophyte phase.
4Plant Life Cycle Alternation of Generations! Haploid (N)Gametophyte plant (N)Produces either sperm or eggs.(gametes = reproductive cells)Diploid (2N)The sperm and egg join to create the Sporophyte plant (2N), which is diploid.Egg and sperm join to create spores by meiosis.
5Plant Survival Sunlight needed to carry out photosynthesis. Minerals and water are needed to make new plant parts.Gas exchange (through photosynthesis and cellular respiration) must occur without losing excessive amounts of water.Movement of water and nutrients is required for plant energy production and growth.
6Evolutionary Cladogram of Plants (Angiosperms)(Gymnosperms)(Bryophytes)
7Overview of the Plant Kingdom The majority of plant life is ______________.
9Bryophytes (ex. mosses, liverworts, hornworts) Life cycles depend on water for reproduction.Abundant in moist environments (bogs, near streams, in rain forests) because there is no vascular tissue.Sphagnum moss alive is used in gardening, and when compacted (peat) it’s used for fuel.(Angiosperms)
13What developed between plant divisions 1 and 2? Vascular Tissue developed!Vascular tissue: specialized tissue to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.
14Phylum Pterophyta: Ferns Ex. horsetails, club mosses, ferns.Leaves are called fronds.Undergound stems called rhizomes .Found in moist, shaded forest areas.Sori – clusters of sporangia (spores on the underside of fronds).
15Vascular TissueTracheids are specialized cells that can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity.Xylem (moves water upward).Phloem (moves nutrients and carbohydrates throughout the plant).
19Gymnosperms: Cone Bearers Means “naked seed”.Includes conifers (pines & spruces) and palms (cycads & ginkgoes).Adapted seed to allow reproduction without water; able survive in dry and extreme temperatures.
20Reproduction Free from Water Second evolutionary development of plants = seeds.Adaptations that allows seed plants to reproduce without water include:Flowers and cones.Transfer of sperm by pollination.Protection of embryos in seeds.Necessary to meet the challenges of surviving on land.
21Diagram of a Pine Seed Embryo Endosperm Seed Coat Growing part of seed containing:EndospermTissue that provides nutrition for the developing seed.Seed CoatProtective outer covering of the seed.EmbryoEndospermSeed Coat
22Reproduction Germination: early growth stage of a plant embryo. Dormancy: period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing.Features that allow seeds to reproduce without water:Reproduction in cones.Movement of gametes by pollination.Protection of embryo in a seed.
23PollinationTransfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure.
29Lifespans Annuals Complete life cycle in one year. Biennials Life cycle takes 2 yearsYear one: germinate and grow roots, maybe leaves.Year two: grow new stems, leaves, and flowers.PerennialsLive through many yearsMay die back in winter, but re-grow in the spring (asparagus, peonies, many grasses).Most have woody stems (palms, trees, honeysuckle).
30Examples of Monocotyledons (Liliopsida) Grasses which include grains such as corn and wheat.Lilies.Orchids.Palms.
31Examples of Dicotylendons (Magnoliopsida) RosesMallowsTomatoesOaksDaisies
32Plant Parts Transport Energy Production Reproduction Roots, stems, leaves.Energy ProductionLeaves.ReproductionFlowers.
33Roots (Transport)Taproot: primary root grows down from the stem with secondary roots forming.ex. carrot, potato, radishFibrous: small lateral roots that spread out just below surface of the soil.ex. weeds
344 Root Functions Absorbs water & nutrients from the soil. Transports water & nutrients to stem.Anchors plant to maintain stability.Stores food and water.
35Structure of Roots Outermost layer of cells Site of absorption Within cortex; contains cells for transport of water, nutrients, & minerals)Site of absorptionTissue that stores starchProtection of root tip
36Stems (Transport) Woody Herbaceous Thick cell walls that support the plant.Trees, shrubs, and vines.HerbaceousStems are smooth, supported by hydrostatic pressure (turgor).Dandilions, zinnias, petunias.
383 Functions of StemsTransports water & nutrients from roots to leaves.Supports/produces leaves, branches, fruits/flowers.Stores food.
39Transport in PlantsCapillary action: the tendency of water to rise in a thin tube.The result of the water molecules’ ability to stick to one another (cohesion)and to the walls of the tube (adhesion).Contributes to the movement of water up the cells of the xylem tissue.
40Leaves (Transport & Energy Production) PhotosynthesisProcess that plants use to produce their food.6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2TranspirationLoss of water and exchange of carbon dioxide.
41Structure of Leaves Cuticle Mesophyll Waxy outer surface; retains moisture.MesophyllMiddle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs.Palisade layer (upper).Spongy layer (underside).
42Structure of Leaves (cont’d) Epidermis“Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchange.Upper and lower.StomataOutside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange (controlled by guard cells).
43Gas Exchange in Leaves Turgor pressure (water pressure) Stomata close automatically when supplies of water from roots start to dry up.Guard cells trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close.
46Typical Flower Structure PetalsHighly colored part of the flower, may contain perfume and/or nectar glands.SepalsSmall green structures on the base of a flower that protect the flower bud.Image found at:
49Female Plant Organ Pistil (carpels) contains: Stigma: sticky for pollen to attach.Style: sperm travel to ovary.Ovary (fruit): stores ovules (eggs).
50Seed Dispersal Flower Pollination WindWaterAnimalFlower PollinationAnimalsWindFactors that affect seed germination:TemperatureMoisture
51Plant ResponsePlant hormones – chemical substances that control a plant’s patterns of growth & development.Target cell – cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone.
52Tropisms (Response)Tropism – response of a plant to an environmental stimulus.Gravitotropism: response of a plant to the force of gravity.Phototropism: tendency of a plant to grow towards light.Thigmotropism: response of plants to touch.Auxin – substance produced in the tip of the seedling that stimulates cell elongation.
53Photoperiodism: the timing of seasonal activities such as flowering and growth. Herbicides: auxinlike compounds in high concentrations that are toxic to plants therefore inhibiting growth.Chemical defenses: many plants defend themselves against insect attack by manufacturing compounds that have powerful effects on animals, ex. poison oak.