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Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 INTRODUCING PLANTS.

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Presentation on theme: "Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 INTRODUCING PLANTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 INTRODUCING PLANTS

2 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Criteria for Kingdom Plantae  Cell type: Eukaryotes.  Cell number: Multicellular.  Cell structure: Cell wall made of cellulose.  Mode of nutrition: Autotrophic.  Carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b.  Some are parasitic or saprobes.

3 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Plant Life Cycle All plants have a life cycle with alternation of generations, in which the haploid gametophyte phase alternates with the diploid sporophyte phase.

4 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Plant Life Cycle Alternation of Generations!  Haploid (N) –Gametophyte plant (N) –Produces either sperm or eggs.  (gametes = reproductive cells)  Diploid (2N) –The sperm and egg join to create the Sporophyte plant (2N), which is diploid. –Egg and sperm join to create spores by meiosis.

5 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Plant Survival  Sunlight needed to carry out photosynthesis.  Minerals and water are needed to make new plant parts.  Gas exchange (through photosynthesis and cellular respiration) must occur without losing excessive amounts of water.  Movement of water and nutrients is required for plant energy production and growth.

6 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Evolutionary Cladogram of Plants (Angiosperms) (Gymnosperms) (Bryophytes)

7 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Overview of the Plant Kingdom The majority of plant life is ______________.

8 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 BRYOPHYTES

9 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Bryophytes (ex. mosses, liverworts, hornworts)  Life cycles depend on water for reproduction.  Abundant in moist environments (bogs, near streams, in rain forests) because there is no vascular tissue.  Sphagnum moss alive is used in gardening, and when compacted (peat) it’s used for fuel. (Angiosperms)

10 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Typical Moss Plant Capsule Stalk Leaflike Structure Stemlike Structure Rhizoid Sporophyte Gametophyte

11 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Life Cycle of a Moss

12 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 FERNS: Seedless Vascular Plants

13 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 What developed between plant divisions 1 and 2? Vascular Tissue developed! Vascular tissue: specialized tissue to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

14 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Phylum Pterophyta: Ferns  Ex. horsetails, club mosses, ferns.  Leaves are called fronds.  Undergound stems called rhizomes.  Found in moist, shaded forest areas.  Sori – clusters of sporangia (spores on the underside of fronds).

15 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Vascular Tissue  Tracheids are specialized cells that can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity. –Xylem (moves water upward). –Phloem (moves nutrients and carbohydrates throughout the plant).

16 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Typical Fern Plant

17 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Life Cycle of a Fern

18 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 GYMNOSPERMS: Seed Plants

19 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Gymnosperms: Cone Bearers  Means “naked seed”.  Includes conifers (pines & spruces) and palms (cycads & ginkgoes).  Adapted seed to allow reproduction without water; able survive in dry and extreme temperatures.

20 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Reproduction Free from Water  Second evolutionary development of plants = seeds.  Adaptations that allows seed plants to reproduce without water include: –Flowers and cones. –Transfer of sperm by pollination. –Protection of embryos in seeds.  Necessary to meet the challenges of surviving on land.

21 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Diagram of a Pine Seed Embryo Endosperm Seed Coat  Embryo –Growing part of seed containing:  Endosperm –Tissue that provides nutrition for the developing seed.  Seed Coat –Protective outer covering of the seed.

22 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Reproduction  Germination: early growth stage of a plant embryo.  Dormancy: period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing.  Features that allow seeds to reproduce without water: –Reproduction in cones. –Movement of gametes by pollination. –Protection of embryo in a seed.

23 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Pollination  Transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure.

24 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Adaptations  Needles  Winged Seeds

25 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 ANGIOSPERMS: Flowering Plants

26 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Anthophyta: Angiosperms  Dominate plant life.  Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants. –has ovaries (fruit) to protect the seeds. –Attracts animals which help with pollination.

27 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Diversity of Angiosperms Can be classified into: 1.Stems: herbaceous vs. woody. 2.Lifespans: annuals, biennials, perennials. 3.monocotyledon vs. dicotyledon.

28 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Monocots vs. Dicots

29 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Lifespans  Annuals –Complete life cycle in one year.  Biennials –Life cycle takes 2 years  Year one: germinate and grow roots, maybe leaves.  Year two: grow new stems, leaves, and flowers.  Perennials –Live through many years  May die back in winter, but re-grow in the spring (asparagus, peonies, many grasses).  Most have woody stems (palms, trees, honeysuckle).

30 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Examples of Monocotyledons (Liliopsida)  Grasses which include grains such as corn and wheat.  Lilies.  Orchids.  Palms.

31 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Examples of Dicotylendons (Magnoliopsida)  Roses  Mallows  Tomatoes  Oaks  Daisies

32 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Plant Parts  Transport –Roots, stems, leaves.  Energy Production –Leaves.  Reproduction –Flowers.

33 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Roots (Transport)  Taproot: primary root grows down from the stem with secondary roots forming. –ex. carrot, potato, radish  Fibrous: small lateral roots that spread out just below surface of the soil. –ex. weeds

34 Robert Turner College & Career High School  Root Functions  Absorbs water & nutrients from the soil.  Transports water & nutrients to stem.  Anchors plant to maintain stability.  Stores food and water.

35 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Outermost layer of cells Within cortex; contains cells for transport of water, nutrients, & minerals) Site of absorption Tissue that stores starch Protection of root tip Structure of Roots

36 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Stems (Transport)  Woody –Thick cell walls that support the plant. –Trees, shrubs, and vines.  Herbaceous –Stems are smooth, supported by hydrostatic pressure (turgor). –Dandilions, zinnias, petunias.

37 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Stems

38 Robert Turner College & Career High School  Functions of Stems  Transports water & nutrients from roots to leaves.  Supports/produces leaves, branches, fruits/flowers.  Stores food.

39 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Transport in Plants  Capillary action: the tendency of water to rise in a thin tube.  The result of the water molecules’ ability to stick to one another (cohesion)and to the walls of the tube (adhesion).  Contributes to the movement of water up the cells of the xylem tissue.

40 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Leaves (Transport & Energy Production)  Photosynthesis –Process that plants use to produce their food. –6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  Transpiration –Loss of water and exchange of carbon dioxide.

41 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Structure of Leaves  Cuticle –Waxy outer surface; retains moisture.  Mesophyll –Middle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs. –Palisade layer (upper). –Spongy layer (underside).

42 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Structure of Leaves (cont’d)  Epidermis –“Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchange. –Upper and lower.  Stomata –Outside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange (controlled by guard cells).

43 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Gas Exchange in Leaves  Turgor pressure (water pressure) –Stomata close automatically when supplies of water from roots start to dry up. –Guard cells trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close.

44 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Leaf Vein Types Parallel Pinnate Palmate

45 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Structure of Flowers

46 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015  Petals –Highly colored part of the flower, may contain perfume and/or nectar glands.  Sepals –Small green structures on the base of a flower that protect the flower bud. Image found at: Typical Flower Structure

47 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Flowers (Reproduction)

48 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015  Stamen contains: –Anther: produces pollen. –Filament: upholds anther. Male Plant Organ

49 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015  Pistil (carpels) contains: –Stigma: sticky for pollen to attach. –Style: sperm travel to ovary. –Ovary (fruit): stores ovules (eggs). Female Plant Organ

50 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015  Wind  Water  Animal Seed Dispersal Factors that affect seed germination:  Temperature  Moisture Flower Pollination  Animals  Wind

51 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Plant Response  Plant hormones – chemical substances that control a plant’s patterns of growth & development.  Target cell – cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone.

52 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015 Tropisms (Response)  Tropism – response of a plant to an environmental stimulus. –Gravitotropism: response of a plant to the force of gravity. –Phototropism: tendency of a plant to grow towards light. –Thigmotropism: response of plants to touch.  Auxin – substance produced in the tip of the seedling that stimulates cell elongation.

53 Robert Turner College & Career High School  2015  Photoperiodism: the timing of seasonal activities such as flowering and growth.  Herbicides: auxinlike compounds in high concentrations that are toxic to plants therefore inhibiting growth.  Chemical defenses: many plants defend themselves against insect attack by manufacturing compounds that have powerful effects on animals, ex. poison oak.


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