Presentation on theme: "AGENDA APR 24 Objectives: Describe what plants need to survive. Explain the characteristics of different groups of plants. 1. Chapter 21 Written Response."— Presentation transcript:
AGENDA APR 24 Objectives: Describe what plants need to survive. Explain the characteristics of different groups of plants. 1. Chapter 21 Written Response 2. Introduce Chapter 22 Plant Diversity 3. Review and Homework
Question of the Day APR 24 EOC REVIEW The first plants evolved from A. Red algae B. Green algae C. Brown algae D. Golden algae
22-1 Intro to Plants Classified by the following characteristics… Multicellular Eukaryotes Cells walls made of cellulose. Multicellular embryos. Photosynthesis Chlorophyll a and b
What do plants need to survive? Work with a partner to decide which basic necessities of life are required by plants. Include a brief explanation why a plant requires each one.
What Plants Need to Survive Sunlight – energy for photosynthesis Water and Minerals – electrons for LDR plant growth Gas Exchange – Oxygen for Respiration Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis Movement of Water and Nutrients – Carry products of photosynthesis to parts of plant.
Life Cycle and Survival Sporophyte – diploid phase (2N) Spore producing plant Gametophyte – haploid phase (N) produces gametes Basic Needs Sunlight – energy for photosynthesis Water, Minerals, Gas Exchange Movement of Water and Nutrients
Overview of Plants First plants evolved from multicellular green algae Four GROUPS 1. Mosses2. Ferns 3 Derived Characteristics3. Conifers4. Flowering Water-conducting tissues Seeds Flowers
AGENDA APR 27 Objectives: Describe what plants need to survive. Explain the characteristics of different groups of plants. 1. Chapter 22: Four main groups of plants 2. QUIZ TOMORROW 3. Review and Homework Review Questions STUDY!!!
Evolution of Plants https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4L3r_XJW0I Begin at 5:00
22-2 Bryophytes Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts Require water for reproduction No vascular tissues Water taken in by osmosis Very low to ground Rhizoids – root like structures Long thin cells draw up water and minerals
22-3 Seedless Vascular Plants Specialized to conduct water and nutrients through plant XYLEM – specialized tissue to transport water up the plant made of tracheids. PHLOEM – tissue that transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates. Both can move materials against the force of gravity. LIGNIN – makes cell walls rigid Plants grow upright
Ferns, Club Mosses, and Horsetail Roots – absorb water and minerals Leaves – photosynthetic organs Stems – support structures carry water and nutrients
22-4: Seed Plants GYMNOSPERMS – Bear seeds on cones ANGIOSPERMS – flowering plants bear seeds within tissue. Methods of fertilization Flowers or cones Transfer of sperm by pollination Protection of embryos in seeds
Reproductive Parts Cones and flowers – seed-bearing sporophyte structures Gametophytes live inside Pollination – transfer of pollen by wind, insects, animals. Seeds contain embryos Protection and food supply
22-5: Angiosperms Flowers are reproductive organs. Contain ovaries – surround and protect seeds Seeds produced within ovaries Ovaries mature into fruits Fruits aid in the dispersion of seeds
AGENDA APR 28 Objectives: Describe what plants need to survive. Explain the characteristics of different groups of plants. 1. Plants Quiz 2. Monocots and Dicots 3. Chapter 23: Roots, Stems, and Leaves 4. Review and Homework Complete Question Packet - DUE Tomorrow!
Monocots and Dicots https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zHp_voyo7MY 0 – 2:00
23-1: Specialized Tissues in Plants Three Principal Organs of Seed Plants 1. ROOTS – absorbs water and dissolved nutrients 2. STEMS – support system for the plant body 3. LEAVES – main photosynthetic systems
Plant Tissue Systems Dermal tissue – single layer of epidermal “skin” cells Thick waxy cuticle protects against water loss and injury Vascular tissue – transports water and nutrients Xylem Phloem Ground tissue – cells between dermal and vascular
Growth and Meristematic Tissue Most plants produce new cells for as long as they live Indeterminate growth at tips of roots and stems Meristems responsible for growth New cells produced in meristematic tissue are not specialized. What is differentiation?
Plant Nutrition and Transport https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsY8j8f54I0
23-2 ROOTS Taproot – long thick primary root Small secondary roots Fibrous root – large cluster of roots all of the same size.
Root Functions 1. Anchor plants to the ground 2. Absorb nutrients and water Active transport required to take in minerals from soil Root pressure required to move or push water up through the xylem to other parts of the plant.
22-3 STEMS Three major functions 1. Produce leaves, branches, and flowers. 2. hold leaves up to sunlight 3. transport substances between roots and leaves Monocot StemDicot Stem Vascular bundles scatteredArranged in Throughout stemorganized, ringlike patterns
23-4: Leaves Absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis Blades – thin flattened sections collect sunlight Petioles – attach leaves to the stem Cuticle and epidermal cells Protection and prevents evaporation of water
Leaf Functions Photosynthesis occurs in mesophyll - specialized ground tissue. Stomata – pore-like openings that allow CO2 and O2 into/out of cell. Guard cells control opening and closing of stomata Respond to Water Pressure
Guard Cells and Stomata Stomata open during daytime Closed at night. Transpiration – water loss through a plant’s leaves
23-5: Transport in Plants Three forces needed for Water transport 1. Root pressure 2. Capillary action 3. Transpiration Adhesion – the attraction of water molecules with unlike molecules H2O forms hydrogen bonds Capillary action is the attraction of water to the walls of a tube – water climbs higher in thinner tubes
Transpirational Pull https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mc9gUm1mMzc Water is high = Open Stomata Excess water lost through transpiration Water is low = H2O pressure drop Guard cells close stomata
Pressure-Flow Hypothesis Nutrients pumped into or removed from PHLOEM Change in concentration of fluid also occurs Nutrients move from a high concentration SOURCE low concentration SINK ROOT LEAF OR LEAF ROOT