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Plants. Multicellular eukaryotes Multicellular eukaryotes Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embryos.

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Presentation on theme: "Plants. Multicellular eukaryotes Multicellular eukaryotes Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embryos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plants

2 Multicellular eukaryotes Multicellular eukaryotes Cell walls made of cellulose Cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embryos Develop from multicellular embryos Carry out photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a & b Carry out photosynthesis using Chlorophyll a & b Most are autotrophs Most are autotrophs Some are parasites Some are parasites

3 Plant Life Cycle 2 phases that alternate: 2 phases that alternate: Dipoloid Dipoloid Haploid Haploid Known as alternation of generations Known as alternation of generations

4 Mitosis & meiosis alternate to produce 2 types of reproductive cells Mitosis & meiosis alternate to produce 2 types of reproductive cells Gametes Gametes Haploid phase is called a gametophyte Haploid phase is called a gametophyte Spores Spores Diploid phase called sporophyte Diploid phase called sporophyte

5 Survival In order to survive, plants need: In order to survive, plants need: sunlight sunlight water and minerals water and minerals gas exchange gas exchange transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body

6 Evolution of Plants The first plants evolved from an organism similar to the multicellular green algae living today The first plants evolved from an organism similar to the multicellular green algae living today The oldest known plant fossils, about 450 million years old, are similar to today’s mosses The oldest known plant fossils, about 450 million years old, are similar to today’s mosses

7 Division of the Plant Kingdom Plants are divided into four groups based on these features: Plants are divided into four groups based on these features: water-conducting tissues water-conducting tissues seeds seeds flowers flowers

8 Evolutionary Relationships Among Plants Evolutionary Relationships Among Plants Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Mosses and their relatives Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit Water-conducting (vascular) tissue Seeds Green algae ancestor

9 Seed plants are divided into two groups: Seed plants are divided into two groups: Gymnosperms bear seeds directly on the surfaces of cones. Gymnosperms bear seeds directly on the surfaces of cones. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, bear seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed Angiosperms, or flowering plants, bear seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed

10 Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water include: Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water include: flowers or cones flowers or cones the transfer of sperm by pollination the transfer of sperm by pollination the protection of embryos in seeds the protection of embryos in seeds

11 The male gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure called a pollen grain The male gametophyte is contained in a tiny structure called a pollen grain This transfer of pollen is called pollination. This transfer of pollen is called pollination.

12 Seeds A seed is an embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply. A seed is an embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by a food supply. An embryo is an organism in its early stage of development. An embryo is an organism in its early stage of development. The seed coat surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps contents of the seed from drying out. The seed coat surrounds and protects the embryo and keeps contents of the seed from drying out.

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14 Angiosperms The majority of living plant species are flowering plants, or angiosperms The majority of living plant species are flowering plants, or angiosperms Flowers are an evolutionary advantage because they attract animals, which then transport pollen from flower to flower. Flowers are an evolutionary advantage because they attract animals, which then transport pollen from flower to flower. Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds. Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds. After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit. After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit. A fruit is a wall of tissue that surrounds a seed. A fruit protects the seed and aids in its dispersal. A fruit is a wall of tissue that surrounds a seed. A fruit protects the seed and aids in its dispersal.

15 There are two classes within the angiosperms— monocots and dicots There are two classes within the angiosperms— monocots and dicots Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the plant embryo. Monocots have one seed leaf, and dicots have two. Monocots and dicots are named for the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, in the plant embryo. Monocots have one seed leaf, and dicots have two. A cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant A cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant

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17 Life Cycles There are three categories of plant life spans: annual, biennial, and perennial. There are three categories of plant life spans: annual, biennial, and perennial. Annuals are plants that complete a life cycle in one growing season. Annuals are plants that complete a life cycle in one growing season. Biennials complete their life cycle in two years. In the first year, they germinate and grow roots, short stems, and sometimes leaves. In the second year, they grow new stems and leaves, produce flowers and seeds, and die. Biennials complete their life cycle in two years. In the first year, they germinate and grow roots, short stems, and sometimes leaves. In the second year, they grow new stems and leaves, produce flowers and seeds, and die. Perennials live for more than two years. Perennials live for more than two years.

18 Plant Structure The three principal organs of seed plants are roots, stems, and leaves. The three principal organs of seed plants are roots, stems, and leaves. These organs perform functions such as the transport of nutrients, protection, and coordination of plant activities. These organs perform functions such as the transport of nutrients, protection, and coordination of plant activities.

19 Roots: Roots: absorb water and dissolved nutrients. absorb water and dissolved nutrients. anchor plants in the ground. anchor plants in the ground. protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi. protect the plant from harmful soil bacteria and fungi.

20 Stems provide: Stems provide: a support system for the plant body. a support system for the plant body. a transport system that carries nutrients. a transport system that carries nutrients. a defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease a defense system that protects the plant against predators and disease

21 Leaves: Leaves: are a plant’s main photosynthetic systems. are a plant’s main photosynthetic systems. increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb. increase the amount of sunlight plants absorb. Adjustable pores conserve water and let oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf. Adjustable pores conserve water and let oxygen and carbon dioxide enter and exit the leaf.

22 Plants consist of three main tissue systems: Plants consist of three main tissue systems: dermal tissue dermal tissue vascular tissue vascular tissue ground tissue ground tissue

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24 Vascular Tissue Conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant Conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant The first vascular plants contained tracheids which are cells specialized to conduct water. The first vascular plants contained tracheids which are cells specialized to conduct water. Tracheids make up xylem, a transport subsystem that carries water from the roots to every part of a plant. Tracheids make up xylem, a transport subsystem that carries water from the roots to every part of a plant. Phloem transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis Phloem transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

25 Both xylem and phloem can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity Both xylem and phloem can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity Xylem moves water Xylem moves water Phloem moves food Phloem moves food

26 Roots The two main types of roots are: The two main types of roots are: taproots, which are found mainly in dicots taproots, which are found mainly in dicots carrots carrots fibrous roots, which are found mainly in monocots fibrous roots, which are found mainly in monocots grasses grasses

27 The most important nutrients plants need include: The most important nutrients plants need include: nitrogen nitrogen phosphorus phosphorus potassium potassium magnesium magnesium calcium calcium

28 Root pressure forces water through the vascular cylinder and into the xylem Root pressure forces water through the vascular cylinder and into the xylem Root pressure is the starting point for movement of water through the vascular system of the entire plant. Root pressure is the starting point for movement of water through the vascular system of the entire plant.

29 Stems Stems have three important functions: Stems have three important functions: they produce leaves, branches and flowers they produce leaves, branches and flowers they hold leaves up to the sunlight they hold leaves up to the sunlight they transport substances between roots and leaves they transport substances between roots and leaves

30 Leaves The structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis The structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis

31 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Leaf Structure. Blade Stem Bud Petiole Simple leaf Compound leaf Leaflet

32 Stomata are porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf. Stomata are porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen to diffuse into and out of the leaf. Guard cells are specialized cells that control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure. Guard cells are specialized cells that control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure.

33 Transpiration is the loss of water through its leaves Transpiration is the loss of water through its leaves Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water Plants keep their stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to take place but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water

34 Reproduction Reproduction in gymnosperms takes place in cones, which are produced by a mature sporophyte plant. Reproduction in gymnosperms takes place in cones, which are produced by a mature sporophyte plant. Gymnosperms produce two types of cones: pollen cones and seed cones Gymnosperms produce two types of cones: pollen cones and seed cones

35 Meiosis Fertilization

36 Flowers Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of four kinds of specialized leaves: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Flowers are reproductive organs that are composed of four kinds of specialized leaves: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels.

37 Sepals enclose the bud before it opens and protect the flower while it is developing. Sepals enclose the bud before it opens and protect the flower while it is developing. Sepal

38 Petals are often brightly colored and are found just inside the sepals. Petals are often brightly colored and are found just inside the sepals. Petals attract insects and other pollinators to the flower. Petals attract insects and other pollinators to the flower. Petal

39 The male parts of a flower consist of an anther and a filament, which together make up the stamen. The male parts of a flower consist of an anther and a filament, which together make up the stamen. Filament Anther Stamen

40 An anther is an oval sac where meiosis takes place, producing pollen grains. An anther is an oval sac where meiosis takes place, producing pollen grains. Anther

41 The filament is a long, thin stalk that supports an anther. The filament is a long, thin stalk that supports an anther. Filament

42 The innermost floral parts are carpels, also called pistils, which produce the female gametophytes. The innermost floral parts are carpels, also called pistils, which produce the female gametophytes. Carpel Style Stigma Ovary

43 Each carpel has a broad base forming an ovary. Each carpel has a broad base forming an ovary. The ovary contains one or more ovules where female gametophytes are produced. The ovary contains one or more ovules where female gametophytes are produced. Ovary Ovule

44 The narrow stalk of the carpel is the style. The narrow stalk of the carpel is the style. Style

45 At the top of the style is the stigma —a sticky portion where pollen grains frequently land. At the top of the style is the stigma —a sticky portion where pollen grains frequently land. Stigma

46 Ovary Ovule Carpel Style Stigma Ovary Filament Anther Stamen Parts of a Typical Flower Parts of a Typical Flower Sepal Petal

47 Reproduction in angiosperms takes place within the flower. Following pollination and fertilization, the seeds develop inside protective structures Reproduction in angiosperms takes place within the flower. Following pollination and fertilization, the seeds develop inside protective structures

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49 Seeds are dispersed by animals, wind, and water. Seeds are dispersed by animals, wind, and water. Seeds dispersed by animals are typically contained in fleshy, nutritious fruits. Seeds dispersed by animals are typically contained in fleshy, nutritious fruits. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture can cause a seed to end dormancy and germinate Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture can cause a seed to end dormancy and germinate

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51 that in have that have Seed Germination Remains with the seed Emerge above ground Remain below ground MonocotsDicots 1 Cotyledon2 Cotyledons


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