4Types of Root Systems Taproot System Fibrous Root System Primary roots grow down from the stem with some secondary roots forming.Fibrous Root SystemSmall lateral roots that spread out just below the soil surface.
5Four Root Functions Absorption of water and nutrients. Transportation of water and nutrients to stem.Anchor plant to maintain stability.Store food and wate.r
7Parts of a Root Epidermis Cortex Outermost layer of cells, like the skin of the root.CortexTissue inside epidermis that stores starch and other substances for the growth of the root.
8Parts of a Root Root Cap Root Hairs Vascular Tissue Provides protection for the root tip.Root HairsSite of absorption.Vascular TissueWithin cortex, contains cells that transport water, nutrients, and minerals to all parts of the plant.Image found at:
11Function of Stems Transport water and nutrients from roots to leaves. Supports/produces leaves, branches, and fruit/flowers.Food storage.Image found at:
12Types of Stems Woody: Herbaceous: Thick cell walls that support the plant.Trees, shrubs, and vines.Herbaceous:Stems are smooth, supported by hydrostatic pressure (turgor).Dandelions, zinnias, petunias.
14Parts of a Stem Node Internode Xylem Phloem Areas where side branches and leaves develop.InternodeArea between nodes.XylemCarries water up.PhloemCarries nutrients throughout plant.
15Monocot & Dicot StemsMonocot: vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.Dicot (and most gymnosperms): vascular bundles are arranged in a cylinder.
16Cross-Section of Stems Woody StemDicot StemMonocot Stem
17Growth of StemsPrimary growth of stems is produced by cell divisions in the apical meristem.It takes place in all seed plants.In conifers and dicots, secondary growth takes place in the lateral meristematic tissues called the vascular cambium and cork cambium.
18Woody Stems Actual wood part of the stem is xylem tissue. Heartwood (pith): stores food.Sapwood: active in fluid transport; xylem and phloem.Cambium: producing new tissue, vascular.Cork: bark
21Function of Leaves Photosynthesis Transpiration The structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis.PhotosynthesisProcess that plants use to produce their food.6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2TranspirationLoss of water and exchange of carbon dioxide.
22Parts of a Leaf Cuticle Mesophyll Waxy outer surface; retains moisture.MesophyllMiddle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs.Palisade layer (upper)Spongy layer (underside)
23Parts of a Leaf Epidermis Stomata “Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchangeUpper and lowerStomataOutside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange (controlled by guard cells)
25Leaves Letter Structure Color Function A Cuticle Yellow Waxy outer surface; retains moisture.BEpidermisOrange“Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchange.CVein (Xylem)BluePumps water up from soil through roots.DVein (Phloem)RedMoves nutrients and carbohydrates throughout the plant.EMesophyllGreenMiddle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs.FStomataPinkOutside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange.GGuard CellsBrownControl stomata; trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close.
27Turgor Pressure Turgor pressure (water pressure) Stomata close automatically when supplies of water from roots start to dry upGuard cells trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close
31Capillary Action The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube. The result of the water molecules’ ability to stick to one another (cohesion) and to the walls of the tube (adhesion); contributes to the movement of water up the cells of the xylem tissue.