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Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 ROOTS, LEAVES & STEMS Specialized Tissue in Plants Chapter 23.

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Presentation on theme: "Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 ROOTS, LEAVES & STEMS Specialized Tissue in Plants Chapter 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 ROOTS, LEAVES & STEMS Specialized Tissue in Plants Chapter 23

2 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Basic Parts of a Plant  Roots  Stem  Leaves  Flower

3 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 ROOTS Section 23-2

4 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Types of Root Systems  Taproot System –Primary roots grow down from the stem with some secondary roots forming.  Fibrous Root System –Small lateral roots that spread out just below the soil surface.

5 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Four Root Functions 1.Absorption of water and nutrients. 2.Transportation of water and nutrients to stem. 3.Anchor plant to maintain stability. 4.Store food and wate.r

6 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Root

7 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Root  Epidermis –Outermost layer of cells, like the skin of the root.  Cortex –Tissue inside epidermis that stores starch and other substances for the growth of the root.

8 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Root  Root Cap –Provides protection for the root tip.  Root Hairs –Site of absorption.  Vascular Tissue –Within cortex, contains cells that transport water, nutrients, and minerals to all parts of the plant. Image found at:

9 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Root

10 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 STEMS Section 23.3

11 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Function of Stems  Transport water and nutrients from roots to leaves.  Supports/produces leaves, branches, and fruit/flowers.  Food storage. Image found at:

12 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Types of Stems  Woody: –Thick cell walls that support the plant. –Trees, shrubs, and vines.  Herbaceous: –Stems are smooth, supported by hydrostatic pressure (turgor). –Dandelions, zinnias, petunias.

13 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Types of Stems Woody StemHerbaceous Stem

14 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Stem  Node –Areas where side branches and leaves develop.  Internode –Area between nodes.  Xylem –Carries water up.  Phloem –Carries nutrients throughout plant.

15 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Monocot & Dicot Stems  Monocot: vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem.  Dicot (and most gymnosperms): vascular bundles are arranged in a cylinder.

16 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Cross-Section of Stems Woody Stem Dicot StemMonocot Stem

17 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Growth of Stems  Primary growth of stems is produced by cell divisions in the apical meristem. –It takes place in all seed plants.  In conifers and dicots, secondary growth takes place in the lateral meristematic tissues called the vascular cambium and cork cambium.

18 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Woody Stems  Actual wood part of the stem is xylem tissue.  Heartwood (pith): stores food.  Sapwood: active in fluid transport; xylem and phloem.  Cambium: producing new tissue, vascular.  Cork: bark

19 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Formation of Bark

20 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 LEAVES Section 23.4

21 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Function of Leaves  The structure of a leaf is optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis.  Photosynthesis –Process that plants use to produce their food. –6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  Transpiration –Loss of water and exchange of carbon dioxide.

22 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Leaf  Cuticle –Waxy outer surface; retains moisture.  Mesophyll –Middle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs. –Palisade layer (upper) –Spongy layer (underside)

23 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Parts of a Leaf  Epidermis –“Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchange –Upper and lower  Stomata –Outside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange (controlled by guard cells)

24 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Leaves

25 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Leaves LetterStructureColorFunction ACuticleYellowWaxy outer surface; retains moisture. BEpidermisOrange“Skin” of leaf - responsible for gas exchange. CVein (Xylem)BluePumps water up from soil through roots. DVein (Phloem)RedMoves nutrients and carbohydrates throughout the plant. EMesophyllGreenMiddle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs. FStomataPinkOutside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where gas and water exchange. GGuard CellsBrownControl stomata; trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close.

26 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Leaves Dicot Leaf

27 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Turgor Pressure  Turgor pressure (water pressure) –Stomata close automatically when supplies of water from roots start to dry up –Guard cells trigger when water is scarce causing stomata to become flaccid and pores close

28 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Leaf Venation

29 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Leaf Adaptations

30 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 TRANSPORT IN PLANTS Section 23.5

31 Sheryl Searcy Ninth Grade Center  2012 Capillary Action  The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube. –The result of the water molecules’ ability to stick to one another (cohesion) and to the walls of the tube (adhesion); contributes to the movement of water up the cells of the xylem tissue.


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