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An introduction to plants

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1 An introduction to plants
Plant Diversity An introduction to plants

2 What is a plant? Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. They develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments chlorophyll a and b. They are “stationary animals that eat sunlight”

3 Alternation of Generations
Plant life cycles have two alternating phases: A diploid phase—sporophyte generation Haploid Spores are produced by meiosis and grow into the haploid gametophyte A haploid phase—gametophyte generation Haploid Gametes are produced by mitosis. A male and female gamete fuse together to produce a diploid sporophyte.

4 Plant Life Cycle

5 What plants need to survive
Sunlight For photosynthesis Leaves are broad and flat to maximize sunlight absorption Water and Minerals Water is required for photosynthesis. Plants have developed structures that absorb water and prevent water loss. Nutrients are absorbed from the soil. These nutrients are needed for plant growth. Gas Exchange Plants need oxygen for cellular respiration and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. They must exchange these gases with the atmosphere. Movement of Water and Nutrients Plants get water and nutrients through their roots, but make food in their leaves, so they must have a way of getting the nutrients and water from their roots to their leaves. Mosses use diffusion, other plants have specialized structures for transport water and nutrients.

6 Early Plants The first plants evolved from an organism much like the multicellular green algae living today. Green algae and plants have similar reproductive cycles, cell walls and photosynthetic pigments. From those early plants come the mosses and their relatives. Then plants with better water transportation systems evolved.

7 The Plant Kingdom Plants are divided into four groups based on three important features: Water conducting tissues Mosses and their relatives do not have vascular tissue Ferns and all other plants do. Seeds—gymnosperms—cone bearing Flowers—angiosperms—flowering plants

8 Bryophytes All nonvascular plants, including mosses, are called bryophytes. They have reproductive cycles that depend on water. Since they have no vascular tissue, they draw water up by osmosis. For this reason, they can only grow a few centimeters above the ground.

9 Groups of Bryophytes Mosses-the most common. Grown in swamps, bogs, near streams and in rain forests. They do not have true roots. They have rhizoids which are long, thin cells that anchor them in the ground and absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Liverworts Hornworts

10 Life Cycle of Bryophytes
Gametophyte (1N) is dominant and is the stage that carries out most of the photosynthesis. Gametes (1N) are formed in reproductive structures at the tip of the gametophyte. Sperm are produced in antheridia and eggs are produced in archegonia. Fertilization results in a diploid zygote wich develops into the sporophyte (2N) Haploid spores are produced in the sporophyte, are scattered by the wind and will develop into gametophytes.

11 Moss Life Cycle Sporophyte generation Gametophyte generation

12 Seedless Vascular Plants
Vascular tissue is specialized to conduct water and nutrients through the plant First specialized cells were tracheids. These are the key cells in the xylem. Xylem transports water upward from the roots to all parts of the plant. Phloem is another tissue in plants specialized to transport solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis throughout the plant.

13 Zylem and Ploem Xylem and phloem can move fluids through the plant body, even against the force of gravity. Thick walls of xylem and lignin (a substance that makes the cell walls rigid) enable vascular plants to grow upright and reach great heights.

14 Ferns and Their Relatives
Seedless vascular plants include club mosses, horsetail and ferns. Ferns are the most numerous of this group. Ferns and their relatives have true roots, leaves and stems. Roots—underground organs that absorb water and minerals. Leaves—photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue (veins made of xylem and phloem) Ferns leaves are called fronds Stems—supporting structures that connect roots to leaves, carrying water and nutrients between them. Ferns have underground stems called rhizomes

15 Life Cycle of Ferns The diploid sporophyte stage is dominant.
Fern sporophytes develop haploid spores on the underside of their fronds in tiny containers called sporangia. The sporangia are grouped together in clusters called sori. Spores make haploid gametophytes. The small gametophyte grows rhizoid like roots then flattens into a thin, heart-shaped green structure. The antheridia and archegonia are found on the underside of the gametophyte. The sperm swim to the egg producing a diploid zygote which will grow into a sporophyte. As the sporophyte grows, the gametophyte withers away.

16 Fern Life Cycle Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

17 Seed Plants Seed plants are divided into two groups
Gymnosperms—bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of cones Examples: pines and spruces, cycads, ginkgoes Angiosperms (flowering plants)—bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed. Examples: grasses, flower trees and shrubs, wildflowers and cultivated flowers

18 Reproduction without water
Life cycle that includes alternation of generations, but does not require water for fertilization of gametes. Hence, seed plants can live just about anywhere. Adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water include: Cones and flowers Pollination Embryos in seeds

19 Gymnosperms—Cone Bearers
Gymnosperms include gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes and conifers These plants all reproduce with seeds that are exposed—gymnosperm means “naked seed”

20 Angiosperms—Flowering Plants
Angiosperms develop unique reproductive organs known as flowers Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and protect the seeds. Angiosperm means enclosed seed After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit which protects the seed and aids in its dispersal.

21 Diversity of Angiosperms
Two groups of angiosperms—classified by the number of seed leaves (cotyledons) in the plant embryo. A cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant. Monocot—one seed leaf—includes corn, wheat, lilies, orchids and palms Dicot—two seed leaves—includes roses, clover, tomatoes, oaks and daisies

22 Lifespans of Angiosperms
Annuals—flowering plants that complete a life cycle within one growing season. Plant dies at end of cycle. Biennials—complete their life cycle in two years. In first year, grow roots, short stems and sometimes leaves. In second year, grow new stems and leaves, then produce flowers and seed. Then the plant dies. Perennials—live for more than two years, often for many years. Some have stems that die each year and are replaced in the spring. Most have wood stems—like palm trees, maple trees and honeysuckle

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