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Ms. Van Sciver’s Grade 7. Autotrophs – make their own food Multicellular Eukaryotes – have a nucleus Cells surrounded by cell walls. Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Ms. Van Sciver’s Grade 7. Autotrophs – make their own food Multicellular Eukaryotes – have a nucleus Cells surrounded by cell walls. Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ms. Van Sciver’s Grade 7

2 Autotrophs – make their own food Multicellular Eukaryotes – have a nucleus Cells surrounded by cell walls. Plants

3 Plant Origins

4 Obtaining Water Non vascular – must contact water Vascular – tubes for water transport Retaining Water Cuticle Transporting Materials Non-vascular – diffusion/osmosis Vascular – tubelike tissue Land Adaptations Support Rigid cell walls Vascular tissue Reproduction Gametophyte – Reproductive cells Sporophyte – Spores Zygote – fertilized egg

5 Plant Life Cycle

6 Low Growing Materials transport from cell to cell Live in damp shady places Thin cell walls Seedless Plants Non-Vascular - Bryophytes

7 Bryophyte Life Cycle

8 Non-Vascular - Mosses More than 10,000 species Gametophyte – green- fuzzy appearing tiny leave like parts Root like structures – rhizoid Sporophyte stalk capsule contains spores

9 Non-Vascular - Liverworts More than 8,000 species Found – moist rocks along streams Gametophyte – “liver” shaped Sporophytes – too small to see in umbrella shaped stalk

10 Fewer than 100 species Found in moist soil Sporophytes – slender, horn shaped Non-Vascular - Hornworts

11 Ferns Horsetails Club Mosses True Vascular Tissue Release Spores Need water for reproduction Seedless Plants – Vascular

12 More than 12,000 species True Roots, stems, leaves Sporophyte Leaves – Fronds Spore cases Gametophytes Tiny Grow low to ground Ferns

13 Fern Life Cycle

14 Few Species alive now Needle Like Branches grow in circle around joints Small leaves grow flat against stem Stem contains Silica Horsetails

15 Only a few hundred species Resembles branch of a pine tree Ground pine Grows in spiral around stem Club Mosses

16 Have Vascular Tissue Xylem – carries water and minerals Phloem – carries food (sugars) Use Pollen and Seeds to reproduce Pollen – male reproductive cell Seeds – embryo, food supply, seed coat Gymnosperms Seeds not protected by fruit Angiosperms Produce Flowers Seeds protected by fruit Seed Plants

17 Seed Structure Monocot – one cotyledon (seed leaf) Dicot – 2 cotyledons

18 Seeds must be dispersed to prevent competition Water Sunlight Minerals Dispersed by Wind Water Animals Seed Dispersal

19 Needs- correct moisture, correct temperature, correct time – some seeds are dormant first Germination

20 Tip Covered by a root cap Protects root during growth New cells develop behind root cap Root hairs Tiny Absorb water, minerals Anchor plant in soil Roots Xylem Phloem Fibrous Roots - spreading Taproot - deep

21 Xylem – carries mineral, water Phloem – carries food Supporting Cells Stems Herbaceous Soft No wood Woody Stems Outer bark – Cork Living Phloem Cambium Living Xylem Sapwood Hardwood Annual Rings

22 Conduct Photosynthesis Lose water from stomates during transpiration Guard cells control amount of water lost Leaves

23 Gymnosperms Ginkgo Conifer Largest group Cone bearing Cycad tropical Gnetophyte Deserts, tropical rain forests Can live 1,000 yrs. Seed Not Protected by a fruit Needle like or scale like leaves Deep roots system

24 Gymnosperm Reproduction Pollination pollen - male parts Fertilization sperm reaches ovule Seed development Seed Dispersal

25 Produce Flowers Seeds are protected by fruits Angiosperms Live almost everywhere

26 Flower Parts

27 Angiosperm Life Cycle

28 Dicots vs. Monocots

29 A plant grows toward a stimulus – positive A plant grows away from a stimulus – negative Touch – Thigmotropism Light – Phototropism Gravity – Gravitropism or Geotropism Hormones – Auxin – causes cells to lengthen on side away from light. Plant bends toward light. Tropisms

30 Photoperiodism – response to length of day vs. night. Critical Night Length Short Day Plants – Bloom when daylight is shorter autumn Seasonal Changes Long Day plants – Bloom when daylight is longer – spring and summer Day Neutral – No effect

31 Perennials Flower every year Most have woody steam some have herbaceous stems leaves and stems die each winter, but new are produced in spring. Life Spans of Angiosperms Annuals Complete cycle in one growing season herbaceous stems Biennials Year one – stems, leaves Year Two – flowers, fruits, seeds


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