Presentation on theme: "From Republic to Empire"— Presentation transcript:
1From Republic to Empire Chapter 6 Section 2PagesFrom Republic to Empire
2Crash CourseThe Roman Empire. Or Republic. Or...Which Was It?: Crash Course World History #10 - YouTube
3From Republic to Empire Main IdeaGovernmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government.Reading FocusWhat problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic?How did Rome become an empire?What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana?
4Problems in the Late Republic By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits.Revolution began in political, social institutionsTensions grew between classes of Roman societyGracchi brothers tried to resolve tensionSocial UnrestTribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmersMany reduced to povertyTiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiersSoldier-FarmersGracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmersHad public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its powerSenate urged mobs to kill brothersPublic Land
5The Military in Politics 107 BC, social unrest reached new levelGeneral Gaius Marius elected consulEliminated property restrictionsAccepted anyone who wanted to join armyArmies, private forces devoted to generalPoor hoped to share plunder at end of warRuthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool
6Social and Civil WarsRome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenshipSenate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused90 BC, Social War broke outItalian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenshipThe Social WarSocial War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius SullaSulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military commandSulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictatorCarried out program of reforms to protect power of SenateCivil War
7What challenges faced Rome in the late Republic? SummarizeWhat challenges faced Rome in the late Republic?Answer(s): slave revolts, social unrest, the Social War, and a civil war in which Sulla became dictator
8Rome Becomes an EmpireSulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals.Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to RepublicCaesar, Pompey successful military commandersCrassus one of wealthiest people in Rome60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First TriumvirateThe First TriumvirateCrassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil warCaesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BCCaesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reformsSenate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of MarchEnd of Triumvirate
91st Triumvirate (in Depth) From B.C.E civil wars dominated RomeCrassus (wealthy man), Pompey, & Julius Caesar (generals) emerged victorious (1st Triumvirate)Crassus was killed, Senate gave power to Pompey and ordered Caesar to give up army.Caesar kept his army and defeated Pompey in 44 B.C.EHe came, saw and conquered- ”Veni,vidi,vici”Demand to be the sole dictator
12Caesar’s ReformsCaesar makes reforms: grants wider citizenship creates jobs for poor increases soldier’s payGave land to the poor and expanded the senate to 3x its sizeFilled the senate with his supporter which ultimately weakened itImplemented many reform plansPublic worksNew CalendarMore help for poor
13Why? They feel he is trying to destroy the republic Group of senators opposes Caesar, assassinate him on March 15, 44 B.C.The Ides of MarchWhy? They feel he is trying to destroy the republic
15The Second Triumvirate Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest LepidusLepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in EastCivil WarCivil war between Octavian, Antony broke outOctavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen CleopatraCleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled RomeRepublic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning
16From Octavian to Augustus Octavian Takes PowerOctavian faced task of restoring order in empireHad no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took powerNew Political OrderOctavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of governmentCreated new political order, known today as the empirePrincipateOctavian careful to avoid title of king or emperorCalled himself princeps, “first citizen”Government called PrincipateNew Title27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one”Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown
17The Augustan Age New Imperial Government Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and SenateMost financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s controlForeign AffairsStarted program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, SpainBegan series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube RiverAlso took special care of Rome itselfLegacyCreated police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, waterBegan building program; presided over moral, religious reformsGreat period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil
18I found Rome built of bricks, I leave her clothed on Marble -Augsutus
19Julio-Claudians and Flavians Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 yearsJulio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widelyTiberius a good soldier, competent administratorCaligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consulAD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicideFollowing Nero’s death, civil wars raged in RomeFour military leaders claimed throne in turnLast, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sonsStability returned under FlaviansFlaviansAD 96, new line of emperors established—Good EmperorsFive rulers governed Rome for almost a centuryFrom provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial societyThe Good Emperors
20The Good Emperors Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors Reached limits of expansion under TrajanAdded what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai PeninsulaSuccessor Hadrian thought empire too largeWithdrew from almost all eastern additionsBuilt defensive fortifications to guard against invasionsBuilt wall 73 miles long in northern Britain
22How did Rome grow and change after it became an empire? ExplainHow did Rome grow and change after it became an empire?Answer(s): The Roman Empire reached the limits of its territorial expansion and made developments in building, government, and culture.
23The Pax RomanaThe period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace.Roman government strongest unifying force in empireMaintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiersAristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisionsGovernmentEmpire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from RomeProvincial government fair, efficientGovernment in Rome kept close check on governorsAny citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperorProvincesEmpire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome.
24Legal System Laws Roman law unified the empire Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking lawSame laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they livedAgricultureAgriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax RomanaMost farms, independent with little, no surplus to sellTenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farmsManufacturingManufacturing increased throughout empireItaly, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textilesFine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria
25Trade and Transportation Roads were built for military and not paved.Weather often times made roads impassible.It was cheaper to ship product 100 miles via sea than land. (Why?)
26Opportunities for Trade Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provincesMerchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from AsiaRome, Alexandria became commercial centersTransportationCommercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road networkUltimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire togetherMilitary and Merchant RoutesMost roads built, maintained for military purposesCheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea
27How did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together? AnalyzeHow did government, law, and trade tie the Roman people together?Answer(s): The Roman government was the strongest unifying force, maintaining order, enforcing the laws, and defending the frontiers. Roman law provided stability and, with few exceptions, the same laws applied to everyone in the empire. Trade provided opportunities for commerce between people in different parts of the empire.
28GROG 6-2 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by identifying the causes or effects of the events listed in the boxes.
29Roman Society and Culture Chapter 6 Section 3PagesRoman Society and Culture
30Bell Ringer 6-3 (5 Points) Write a diary entry as though you were a trader in Rome during the Pax Romana. In your entry, tell how you spent your day, including where you went, what you saw, and which goods you bought or sold.
31Roman Society and Culture Main IdeaThe Romans developed a complex society and pioneered cultural advances that, even today, affect life all over the world.Reading FocusWhat social and cultural factors influenced life in imperial Rome?What achievements shaped Rome’s cultural legacy to the modern world?
32Life in Imperial RomeImages of Rome from movies and stories: Gladiators in combat, temples of marble, soldiers marching to war. What was life really like?Pax Romana provided prosperity for manyRich citizensHad both city, country homesHomes had conveniences like running water, bathsWealthy men spent much time in politicsLife for the RichPublic officials not paid; only wealthy could afford to hold officeRoman politicians worked to perfect public-speaking skillsTies of marriage, friendship, family alliances as important as common interests for public officials, political groupsPublic Life
33Life for the PoorNearly 1 million Romans lived in crowded three- or four-story apartment buildingsFire a constant threatTorches used for lightCharcoal used for cookingTo keep poor from rebellingFree food, public entertainment offeredTwo things interested public—bread, circuses
34Public Entertainment Entertainments Romans of all classes enjoyed circus, chariot racesHeld in Circus Maximus—racetrack could hold 250,000 spectatorsAlso liked theater, mimes, jugglers, dancers, acrobats, clownsBloody SpectaclesRomans enjoyed spectacles in amphitheatersWild animals battled each other and professional fightersGladiator contests most popular, performed in Colosseum for 50,000 peoplePublic BathsPopular places for entertainmentRomans well aware of importance of bathing, hygiene for healthMany public baths had steam rooms, meeting rooms, and pools for socializing
35Give Them Bread and Circuses most people are poorOver 1 million in RomeMost live in three-four story apartmentsIn order to keep poor from rebelling-receive grain from government-Free Bread -Circuses- theater, comedies, satires, chariot races, acrobats, dancers-150 holidays and Colosseum or Circus Maximus events created to control the masses- Animals vs Criminal, Animal vs Animal, Gladiators
36Society and CultureThe Circus Maximus was an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium
40SpartacusSpartacus (4/9) Movie CLIP - Fight to the Death (1960) HD - YouTube
41Slaves and CaptivitySlavery is a significant part of Roman life in both cities and farms.Some slaves become gladiators; forced to fight to death
42Patriarchal Structure Education and Religion FamilyHead of family—paterfamilias, family father—oldest living maleHad extensive powers over other members of familyWithin family structure, virtues of simplicity, religious devotion, obedience emphasizedAdoption important in Roman society, a way to ensure family name would be carried onWomen could do little without intervention of male guardian, more freedom in lower classesPatriarchal StructureUpper class Romans placed great value on educationParents taught children at home; wealthy families hired tutors or sent sons to exclusive schools to learn Latin, Greek, law, math, public speakingRomans adopted much from Greek mythology, also from Egyptians, othersEach family worshipped local household gods, penatesMany worshipped emperorEducation and Religion
43Signs and Augurs Worshipping the gods Romans believed gods sent signs, warningsCame in form of natural phenomenaFlight of birds, arrangement of entrails of sacrificial animalsPaid respect to augursPriests who specialized in interpreting signsNothing important undertaken without first consulting augurs
45How was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome? ContrastHow was life different for rich and poor citizens in Rome?Answer(s): Rich—often had two homes and spent time in politics, women's lives controlled by guardians; Poor—lived in crowded conditions, lower-class women had more freedom, often worked outside the home
46Rome’s Cultural Legacy Although the Western Roman Empire fell in 476, much of Roman culture continued to influence life for centuries. In fact, we can still see many of the legacies of the great empire today.Romans less interested in original scientific research than in collecting and organizing informationScience and EngineeringPhysician, AD 100sWrote volumes summarizing all medical knowledge of his dayGreatest authority in medicine for centuriesGalenPtolemy stated knowledge of others as single theory in astronomyPliny the Elder wrote about Mount VesuviusOther Thinkers
47Practical KnowledgeRomans practical, tried to apply knowledge gained from science to planning cities, building water, sewage systems, improving farmingRoman engineers constructed roads, bridges, amphitheaters, public buildings, aqueducts to bring water to citiesWithout aqueducts, cities would not have grown as largeConcreteRomans developed concrete, with which they built amazing structures that still stand todayRoman bridges still span French, German, Spanish riversRoads that connected Rome with provinces still survive todayAdded urban plan to every city they conquered; many still seen today
48AqueductsUnlike Greeks, knowledge would be for practical uses, not just knowledge for knowledge sakes
50Modern InfluencesGreek Art MuseumMonticello, T.J House
51Architecture and Language LocationsMany examples still seen throughout southern Europe, northern Africa, Southwest AsiaDominant advances—round arch and the vaultAdvancesArch, vault allowed Romans to construct larger buildings than earlier societiesHave been used for centuries, still seen in many countriesBeyond LatinRomance languages developed from LatinSpanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, RomanianRuinsRuins of buildings inspired generations of architectsMichelangelo, Thomas Jefferson, others
52Legacies English English owes much vocabulary to Latin Examples: et cetera, veto, curriculumLiteratureTechnique of satire derived from Roman authorsFor centuries, writers have borrowed from authors like VirgilLawRomans used system called civil law, based on written codeAdopted by many countries in Europe after empire fellCivil Law SystemsSystems carried to Asian, African, American coloniesRoman influence still seen in today’s legal system worldwide
53What are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen? SummarizeWhat are some areas in which Rome’s influence is still seen?Answer(s): science, engineering, architecture, language, literature, and law
54GROG 6-3 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by writing a sentence that summarizes the ancient Romans’ views on the subject in each outer circle.
56Bell Ringer 6-5 (5 Points) Write two paragraphs comparing and contrasting life for rich and poor Romans. In one paragraph, explain how the two lifestyles were similar. In the other paragraph, explain how they were different.
57Crash CourseFall of The Roman Empire...in the 15th Century: Crash Course World History #12 - YouTube
58The Fall of Rome Main Idea Reading Focus Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s.Reading FocusWhat problems weakened the empire in the 200s?How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire?What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s?
59Military Dictatorship The Empire WeakensThe Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax Romana.After 180, empire confronted by challenges from outside, growing problems withinWhen last of Good Emperors died, Rome had no strong leaderCivil wars broke outRome under increasing threat of invasions on eastern, western frontiersWeak LeadersEmperors increased size of Rome’s armyDemands on financial resources, military caused economic crisisEmpire: military dictatorshipLegions deposed emperors, elevated own leaders to throneTwenty emperors in 49 years; all but one died violentlyMilitary Dictatorship
60Economic TroublesInsecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman lifeRobbery, piracy increased; travel hazardousMerchants feared to ship goodsMilitary needs required more revenue; emperors raised taxesInflationValue of money declined as taxes roseEmperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silverPeople refused to accept currency at face valueResult was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation
62What problems faced Rome in the late 200s? AnalyzeWhat problems faced Rome in the late 200s?Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel hazardous.
63Attempts at Reform Diocletian took power, 284 The crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and gave the empire another two centuries of life.Diocletian took power, 284Changed empire into absolute monarchyPlaced self above subjects, ruled with no accountability to anyoneDiocletianDivided empire in two to improve efficiencyRuled eastern half himself, appointed co-emperor to rule western provincesCaesars helped run empireDivided EmpireForced society into rigid orderSons to follow trades, social positions of fathersPeasants tied to land they farmedIncreased army, full attention to defenseRigid Order
64Economic ReformsImperial economy came under state direction with DiocletianCommercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of imperial defenseNew tax system raised more money for government, armyReforms drastic, successfulSaved empire from immediate economic collapse
65ConstantineDiocletian’s initiatives worked well while he remained emperorDiocletian, co-emperor retired, 305; two caesars rose to become co-emperorsNew emperors quarreled; empire plunged into civil war312, order restored when Constantine declared emperor by his troops; put end to fightingDiocletian RetiresConstantine continued state control over societyMade two profound decisions to affect direction of future empire: converted to Christianity; built new capital—Constantinople, “city of Constantine”—on site of village of ByzantiumEastern half of empire richer, better defended; Constantine wanted capital thereState Control
66How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome? AnalyzeHow did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome?Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make governmental and economic reforms and build up the army; Constantine—moved capital to the eastern half of the empire
67Invasion and FallUnfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’ increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier.Germanic tribes lived along, raided Rome’s frontiers for centuriesNew peoples moved west from Central Asia, pushed Germanic tribes into empireRulers in Rome, Constantinople tried to hold empire togetherThe InvadersLate 300s, Huns stormed out of east and sent Germanic tribes fleeingImperial defenses in east held, but those in west overwhelmedHuns formed vast empire among nomadic steppe peoples of EurasiaHunsAbout 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people living north of the Black Sea.
68Migrating Tribes Goths Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, VisigothsVisigoths fled into Roman Empire, ItalyVisigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410VandalsOther migrating tribes soon attacked Roman EmpireInfamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome in 450sTerm vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction”AttilaLeader of Huns, led attack on GaulRoman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy
70Fall of the West Western Empire Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shamblesGermanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including ItalyOstrogoths overthrew last emperorMany historians consider this the end of the Western Roman EmpireEastern EmpireDespite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several centuriesPeople of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as RomansOver time other influences, especially Greek, crept into cultureAs a result of these influences, historians refer to the later period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine Empire.
73Identify Cause and Effect How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall?Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the Empire, where resistance had been weakened.
74GROG 6-5 (5 Points) Using your notes, fill in the interactive graphic organizer by listing in order of importance (from most important to least) the major problems or factors that contributed to Rome’s fall and write a sentence explaining the effect of that problem or factor.