2 What is the Relative Location of the city of Rome? Central ItalyOn peninsula in middle of Mediterranean SeaUpon the Tiber River- good transportation, protection
3 Origins of Rome Founded 753 BC by Romulus and Remus on Palatine Hill Romulus kills Remus and names the city after himselfEtruscans to the N. and Greeks S.
4 Government 509 B.C. –Last King Republic – a government of elected representativesPatricians – landownersPlebeians – merchants, farmers, traders.
5 Government Two consuls, elected for 1 year Senate- 300 members chosen from Patricians (aristocracy), served for lifeCenturiate/Tribal assemblies- plebians, members for lifeTribunes- elected by plebeians, protects their rights from patriciansDictator- could be appointed in emergencies, absolute power for 6 months
6 Military Legion- unit of 5,000 265 B.C. controlled Italy Empire expanded.How?Strong, disciplined armyTreated enemy well.Collected taxes.Respected some local customs.
10 Punic Wars Wars with the Phoenician colony of Carthage 1st, BC for control of Sicily, W. Mediterranean2nd, 218 BC
11 Punic WarsHannibal led troops across Europe and over the Alps to ItalyRoman general Scipio (Africanus) attacked Carthage, forced Hannibal to returnDefeated 202 BC.
12 Punic WarsThird War BC, Romans lay siege to Carthage, 50,000 people sold into slavery
13 Republic to Empire1st triumvirate- Julius Caesar- w/ Crassus and Pompey, 60 BCCaesar conquered all of Gaul w/ troops from landless poor- loyal to Caesar, not RomeTurned his army on Rome, Pompey fled, 1st dictator for life, 44 BC
14 Roman Empire Caesar murdered in Senate 3/15, 44 BC “Ides of March” 2nd triumvirate- Octavian, Mark Antony, LepidusOctavian forced Lepidus to retire
15 Roman EmpireAntony fell in love w/ Cleopatra, Ocatvian defeated them both- suicide31 BC- Caesar Augustus
17 Fall of RomeInflation, food shortages, end of expansion weakens empireDiocletian- divided the empire into Greek speaking east and Latin westConstantine reunited the empire, ended persecution of Christians, moved capital to Byzantium (Constantinople)
19 Fall of Rome Germanic invasions weakened the Empire Attila the Hun rampaged through Roman lands476- West fell to VandalsEastern half lasts until 1453, defeated by Ottoman TurksGreco-Roman culture- mix of Greek, Roman, Hellenistic influence
20 Famous Roman stuffVirgil- wrote the Aeneid, modeled after Homer’s workAqueducts- built using arches, they brought fresh water to large citiesSpace between chariot wheels- train tracksLatin becomes basis for Spanish, French, Romanian, Portuguese, ItalianColusseum- stadium where gladiators fought