Presentation on theme: "Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Empire Weakens Attempts at Reform Invasion and Fall Map: Division and Invasion."— Presentation transcript:
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus The Empire Weakens Attempts at Reform Invasion and Fall Map: Division and Invasion of the Roman Empire Quick Facts: Causes and Effects of the Fall of Rome Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Ancient Rome on the World Today The Fall of Rome
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Reading Focus What problems weakened the empire in the 200s? How did Diocletian and Constantine attempt to reform the empire? What caused the invasion and ultimate fall of the empire in the 400s? Main Idea Events and conditions inside as well as outside the Roman Empire weakened it and led to its collapse in the west in the 400s. The Fall of Rome
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 The Roman army’s inability to stop the Huns was one symptom of the weakness that befell the empire after the end of the Pax Romana. After 180, empire confronted by challenges from outside, growing problems within When last of Good Emperors died, Rome had no strong leader Civil wars broke out Rome under increasing threat of invasions on eastern, western frontiers Weak Leaders Emperors increased size of Rome’s army Demands on financial resources, military caused economic crisis Empire: military dictatorship Legions deposed emperors, elevated own leaders to throne Twenty emperors in 49 years; all but one died violently Military Dictatorship The Empire Weakens
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Inflation Value of money declined as taxes rose Emperors minted new coins with copper, lead, and silver People refused to accept currency at face value Result was dramatic rise in prices, or inflation Economic Troubles Insecurity of civil wars, invasions affected Roman life Robbery, piracy increased; travel hazardous Merchants feared to ship goods Military needs required more revenue; emperors raised taxes
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Analyze What problems faced Rome in the late 200s? Answer(s): The empire had weak leaders, civil wars, threats of invasion, and inflation led to a weak economy. Piracy and robbery made travel hazardous.
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 The crises of the 200s shattered the Roman world. Drastic reforms had to be made if the empire were to survive. Two capable emperors rose to power and gave the empire another two centuries of life. Diocletian took power, 284 Changed empire into absolute monarchy Placed self above subjects, ruled with no accountability to anyone Diocletian Divided empire in two to improve efficiency Ruled eastern half himself, appointed co-emperor to rule western provinces Caesars helped run empire Divided Empire Forced society into rigid order Sons to follow trades, social positions of fathers Peasants tied to land they farmed Increased army, full attention to defense Rigid Order Attempts at Reform
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Economic Reforms Imperial economy came under state direction with Diocletian Commercial, manufacturing activities geared toward needs of imperial defense –New tax system raised more money for government, army –Reforms drastic, successful Saved empire from immediate economic collapse
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Constantine continued state control over society Made two profound decisions to affect direction of future empire: converted to Christianity; built new capital—Constantinople, “city of Constantine”—on site of village of Byzantium Eastern half of empire richer, better defended; Constantine wanted capital there State Control Diocletian’s initiatives worked well while he remained emperor Diocletian, co-emperor retired, 305; two caesars rose to become co-emperors New emperors quarreled; empire plunged into civil war 312, order restored when Constantine declared emperor by his troops; put end to fighting Diocletian Retires Constantine
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Analyze How did Diocletian and Constantine try to save Rome? Answer(s): Diocletian—tried to make governmental and economic reforms and build up the army; Constantine—moved capital to the eastern half of the empire
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 About 370 Huns attacked the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people living north of the Black Sea. Unfortunately, the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine did not solve the overwhelming problems of the empire. During the 300s and 400s, these problems were only worsened by tribal peoples’ increasing pressures on the empire’s frontier. Germanic tribes lived along, raided Rome’s frontiers for centuries New peoples moved west from Central Asia, pushed Germanic tribes into empire Rulers in Rome, Constantinople tried to hold empire together The Invaders Invasion and Fall Late 300s, Huns stormed out of east and sent Germanic tribes fleeing Imperial defenses in east held, but those in west overwhelmed Huns formed vast empire among nomadic steppe peoples of Eurasia Huns
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Goths Assault on Ostrogoths frightened kinsmen, Visigoths Visigoths fled into Roman Empire, Italy Visigoths captured and sacked Rome itself, 410 Attila Leader of Huns, led attack on Gaul Roman army allied with Visigoths, defeated Huns, 451 Attila next turned on Rome; but Pope Leo I persuaded him to leave Italy Vandals Other migrating tribes soon attacked Roman Empire Infamous for destroying everything in path; Vandals attacked Rome in 450s Term vandal came to mean “one who causes senseless destruction” Migrating Tribes
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Western Empire Despite Huns’ withdrawal, Western Empire in shambles Germanic tribes ruled most of western provinces, including Italy Ostrogoths overthrew last emperor Many historians consider this the end of the Western Roman Empire Eastern Empire Despite western collapse, Eastern Empire endured for several centuries People of Eastern Empire always thought of selves as Romans Over time other influences, especially Greek, crept into culture As a result of these influences, historians refer to the later period of the Eastern Empire by a new name, the Byzantine Empire. Fall of the West
Rome and Early Christianity Section 5 Identify Cause and Effect How did invaders contribute to Rome’s fall? Answer(s): The invasion of tribes from Central Asia caused Germanic tribes to flee into the Empire, where resistance had been weakened.