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C6.2 – From Republic to Empire. II. Rome Becomes an Empire.

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Presentation on theme: "C6.2 – From Republic to Empire. II. Rome Becomes an Empire."— Presentation transcript:

1 C6.2 – From Republic to Empire

2 II. Rome Becomes an Empire

3 A. The First Triumvirate 60 BC - Caesar and two other generals, Gnaeus Pompey and Licinius Crassus, formed the First Triumvirate Gnaeus Pompey BC Julius Caesar BC Licinius Crassus 115 BC – 53 BC

4 A. The First Triumvirate Crassus died; Caesar defeated Pompey in a civil war; named dictator for life in 44 BC Julius Caesar and the Crossing of the Rubicon

5 The Period from 44BC- 28bc Formation and breakdown of the Second Triumvirate ; power vacuum left by Caesar’s death, candidates for power, Senate response, fate of the assassinsFormation and breakdown of the Second Triumvirate ; power vacuum left by Caesar’s death, candidates for power, Senate response, fate of the assassins Role of Significant individuals; Octavian, Antony, Cicero, Cleopatra, Fulvia and OctaviaRole of Significant individuals; Octavian, Antony, Cicero, Cleopatra, Fulvia and Octavia

6 Senate - Intense rivalries -Jealously protected privileges and power -Did not address needs for reform Landless Roman Peasants - Served in the armies that had won an empire - Wanted farmland and a minimum standard of living Italian Allies - Served in the armies that had won an empire - Wanted citizenship and equal Treatment Equites - Wealthy and distinguished non-senators - Wanted honors and recognition and did not want senators to look down on them Roman Plebs - Laborers and poor of the capital - Access to grain and bread at affordable prices

7 The Power Vacuum The legacy of Julius Caesar’s death was the political vacuum that was left after the Ides of March.The legacy of Julius Caesar’s death was the political vacuum that was left after the Ides of March. Caesar’s series of dictatorships and the many titles and honors granted by the Senate had effectively dismantled the mechanism of government. Free elections had not been held since 49BCCaesar’s series of dictatorships and the many titles and honors granted by the Senate had effectively dismantled the mechanism of government. Free elections had not been held since 49BC Whoever was to fill the vacuum would need wealth and a loyal army.Whoever was to fill the vacuum would need wealth and a loyal army.

8 Octavian and Antony Heirs apparent? As individuals what do they have and what do they lack to take up the mantle of Caesar? OCTAVIAN Sources of power NAME OF CAESAR: Patrician birth Clientale Loyal army Wealth? MARK ANTONY SOURCES OF POWER In possession of CaesarS will Consul for 44BC Loyalty of veterans From the Civil War

9 B. The Second Triumvirate 43 BC - Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus seized power; formed the Second Triumvirate Octavian 63 BC - AD 14 Marc Antony 83 BC – 30 BC Lepidus 90 BC - 13 BC

10 B. The Second Triumvirate Lepidus forced out; Antony and Octavian each governed half the empire

11 B. The Second Triumvirate 31 BC - Civil war between Octavian and Antony; Octavian defeated Antony and Egypt’s Cleopatra The Battle of Actium

12 B. The Second Triumvirate Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian controlled Rome; republic ended, beginning a new period in Roman history Antony and Cleopatra

13 C. From Octavian to Augustus Octavian called himself princeps, government called Principate; new political order emerged – the empire Augustus (63 B.C. – AD 14) First Roman Emperor (27 BC - AD 14) “He subjected the whole wide earth to the rule of the Roman people”

14 C. From Octavian to Augustus 27 BC - Senate gave Octavian title of Augustus, “the revered one” Birth name: Gaius Octavius Thurinus Name as Emperor: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus

15 D. The Augustan Age Ruled 40 years, power divided between him and Senate; conquests expanded the empire and brought peace – Pax Romana

16 D. The Augustan Age Life in Rome improved; period of cultural creativity, greatest writers in Roman history – Horace, Ovid, Livy, and Virgil

17 E. The Emperors AD 14 - Augustus died; empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives next 54 years – the Julio- Claudian Emperors

18 E. The Emperors Abilities varied: Tiberius a good soldier and ruler; Caligula brutal, mentally unstable; Nero, last Julio-Claudian, committed suicide in AD 68 Tiberius (A.D ) Nero (54-68 A.D.) Caligula (37 to 41)

19 E. The Emperors After Nero, civil wars raged in Rome; four military leaders ruled in AD 69; last was Vespasian Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (AD 9 – AD 79

20 E. The Emperors 69 to 96 AD - Vespasian re-established order; stability returned under the Flavians - Vespasian and his two sons The Flavian family, Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, depicted in The Triumph of Titus

21 E. The Emperors AD 96: reign of the Good Emperors began – five rulers who governed Rome almost a century The Five Good Emperors - Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

22 E. The Emperors Empire grew under the Good Emperors; reached limits of expansion under Trajan Aureus issued by Trajan to celebrate the conquest of Parthia

23 E. The Emperors Hadrian thought empire too large, withdrew from the east; built defensive fortifications as guard against invasions Hadrian's Wall in northern England

24 Hadrian

25 A. Government Government strongest unifying force in empire: maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers

26 A. Government Empire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed and monitored by Rome

27 B. Laws, Trade, Transportation Law unified the empire; specified crimes and penalties; applied to everyone in empire - the “Rule of Law”

28 B. Laws, Trade, Transportation Agriculture remained primary occupation; tenant farmers began replacing slaves on large farms

29 B. Laws, Trade, Transportation Manufacturing increased; produced everything from cheap pottery to world’s finest goods Ancient glassware from the Roman era Ancient Roman drinking vessels, bowls and jars

30 B. Laws, Trade, Transportation Imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces; Rome and Alexandria became commercial centers

31 B. Laws, Trade, Transportation Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location and extensive (about 50,000 mile) road network


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