Presentation on theme: "The Early Events of the Cold War The Early Events of the Cold War World History."— Presentation transcript:
The Early Events of the Cold War The Early Events of the Cold War World History
The Cold War What was the Cold War? –Conflict over ideas between the world’s two superpowers (U.S. and Soviet Union) for global influence from 1945-1991 Was it actually a war?
Origins of the Cold War: General Causes 1.Resentment over WWII 2.Differing ideologies of government and economic systems 3.Disagreements in post WWII Europe
Resentment Over WWII Stalin signing the Nonaggression Pact with Hitler in 1938 Allies leaving the Soviet Union to fend for themselves on the Eastern Front Waiting to invade Europe until 1944 Development and use of the atomic bomb
Communism vs. Capitalism/Democracy Communism 1.Totalitarian Dictator 2.Government controls all property and economic activity 3.No opposing parties allowed to exist 4.No Individual liberties Capitalism/Democracy 1.Elected leaders 2.Free Market Economy where citizens control property and economic activity 3.Checks and balances 4.Individual liberties
Post WWII Goals Soviet Union 1.Encourage Communism 2.Get industrial equipment to rebuild 3.Control Eastern Europe to balance power 4.Keep Germany weak and divided United States 1.Encourage Democracy 2.Rebuild European governments to ensure stability 3.Limited Soviet influence 4.Reunite Germany
Stalin’s Broken Promises Yalta Conference February 1945 1.Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill met to finalize plans for the end of WWII 2.United Nations 3.Stalin promised “Free Elections” in Poland and other Soviet controlled territories in Eastern Europe Potsdam Conference July 1945 1.Big Three met in defeated Germany 2.Truman had replaced Roosevelt 3.Stalin refused to hold “Free Elections” 1.“Not only a question of honor for Russia, but one of life and death”
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Post War Soviet Union Joseph Stalin Satellite Nations Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Poland –“Buffer Zone”
Containment: What is it? U.S. policy to stop the spread of Communism An effort to block all Soviet influence throughout the world U.S. got involved in numerous conflicts and directly involved in two wars (Korea and Vietnam) as a result of this policy
Truman Doctrine  President Harry S. Truman –The U.S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities… –What country is President Truman referring to? The U.S. gave $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan  “European Recovery Program” Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it $12.5 billion was given to European countries to help them rebuild and resist Communism
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) U.S. flew in supplies for 327 days 277,000 flights 2.3 million tons of supplies
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania
China “Falls” to Communism Key Terms/Names –Mao Zedong, Chiang Kai-shek Who did the United States support during the Chinese Civil War? Why? Who did the Soviet Union support during the Chinese Civil War? Why? How did the United States “lose” China? As a result of the Chinese Civil War, how did American foreign policy regarding the spread of Communism in Asia change?
The Arms Race Definition: Race between the U.S. & the Soviet Union to build more powerful weapons of mass destruction
The Atomic Bomb U.S. first used the atomic bombs on Japan during WWII By 1949, the Soviet Union tested their own atomic bomb U.S. no longer had a nuclear advantage What should the U.S. do? Is this a moral issue?
H-Bomb November 1952 the U.S. tested the Hydrogen Bomb Delivered a force of 10.4 million tons of TNT 1,000 times more powerful than A-bomb August 1953 Soviet Union tested their own H-bomb
Arms Race (continued) By the late 1950’s – early 1960’s U.S. & the Soviet Union developed nuclear warheads powered by rockets ICBM’s: Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles * can be launched by land or sea
Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What HISTORY OF NUCLEAR WARHEAD STOCKPILES -- 1945-1995 NOTE: Totals are estimates. Lists include strategic and non-strategic warheads, as well as warheads awaiting dismantling 194519551965197519851995 UNITED STATES63,05731,26526,67522,94114,766 SOVIET UNION02006,12919,44339,19727,000 BRITAIN010310350300 FRANCE0032188360485 CHINA005185425 Source: National Resources Defense Council
Purpose of Nuclear Weapons : 1. Why do countries possess Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)? Deterrence: Acquiring military power for the purpose of discouraging attacks 2. Why don’t countries actually use them? MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction): During a nuclear war, both countries will be destroyed
Recent Nuclear Conflicts Iran’s Goal –Nuclear Weapons? –Nuclear Energy? Iran’s radical Muslim leader has made claims about “wiping Israel from the face of the earth” Is this the type of person the world wants possessing nuclear weapons? Audio Clips BBC News Mahmoud Ahmadinejad CommentsBBC News NPR Audio Clip Tensions Escalate Over IranNPR Audio Clip NPR Audio Clip Iran Expands Nuclear EffortNPR Audio Clip
Writing Prompt Is it fair for nuclear countries, like the U.S. to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons?Is it fair for nuclear countries, like the U.S. to discourage other nations from acquiring nuclear weapons? Think about: 1.What will the nuclear weapons be used for? 2.Are they an unstable nation? 3.Are they threats to the free world? 4.What would happen if the technology for nuclear weapons became widely known 5.What might happen if terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda acquired the technology for nuclear weapons?
Arms Race 1952 U.S. Exploded the H-Bomb 1953 Soviet Union exploded H-bomb Brinkmanship –Threats of massive retaliation using nuclear weapons to serve as a deterrence John Foster Dulles –U.S. built up massive amounts of nuclear weapons –Soviet Union followed
A New Leader 1953 Joseph Stalin died Nikita Khrushchev took over as Soviet Premier About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956
Sputnik I, 1957 October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union used an ICBM to launch an artificial satellite into space Could allow the Soviet Union to launch a nuclear missile anywhere in the world The Russians have beaten America in space… they have a technological edge!
U.S. Budget Spent on Defense 1940 –18% 1950 –32% 1960 –52% 1990 –24%
U-2 Incident U-2 Spy Plane CIA was making secret flights over Soviet territory and taking pictures Francis Gary Powers (U-2 pilot) was brought down over the Soviet Union Event caused Khrushchev to denounce Eisenhower and it increased tensions during the Cold War