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2 The Cold War 1945- 1991 Downloaded from


4 The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world- wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.

5 What happened to the country of Germany when WWII was over? They became a country divided by four….

6 Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.

7 How did the U.S.A. try to help the countries of Europe?

8 Marshall Plan [1948] 1.(also known as) “European Recovery Program.” 2.(named for) Secretary of State, George Marshall 1.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. 2.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].

9 Berlin was also divided among the powers.

10 Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

11 Berlin West Berlin was like a capitalist island within communist East Germany The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into giving up to the communists The Allied western powers airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin.

12 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948- 49)

13 The race to be the most powerful country in the world had begun.

14 The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

15 Countries of the world are beginning to take sides again!!

16 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)  United States  Belgium  Britain  Canada  Denmark  France  Iceland  Italy  Luxemburg  Netherlands  Norway  Portugal  1952: Greece & Turkey  1955: West Germany  1983: Spain

17 Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania

18 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie


20 The communist government believed that if they separated Eastern (Communist) Berlin from Western (Capitalist) Berlin that they would have better control over their Communist Region.

21 What changed because of the wall? A city divided A city divided Families Separated Families Separated Loss of lives Loss of lives Visible Military/ Guards Visible Military/ Guards


23 The Berlin Wall Comes Down (1989-1990) After almost 30 years of separation the wall was opened up and eventually almost entirely torn down.


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