Announcements O Talent Show / Art Show O Roots Test (ASAP) O Homework over Spring Break O CCW Test (Mon Apr 8th)
Claim O Often called a “thesis statement” or “main idea” of your paper O Stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a person to hold. O Ask yourself, “What is the/my point?” O Example: O “The end of segregation in the South was inevitable.” O “Oreos should be the national cookie.” O “All teenagers should be allowed to carry backpacks.”
Reasons + Evidence Reasons Support of your claim, Tell why you think what you think. A rough outline of your essay: the claim and the reasons you will give for supporting it. (Thesis much) Example: Claim: Flight attendants who suffer from diseases shown to be connected to inhaling secondhand smoke on airlines should have the costs of their treatment and disability covered by tobacco companies. Reason: Tobacco companies have concealed evidence that nicotine causes cancer. Studies show that secondhand smoke can be damaging. REASONS ARE NOT ENOUGH! Evidence O Show specific evidence supporting your reasons. O Concrete evidence: O facts O Statistics O First-hand stories O Examples O Expert testimony O Explain how this research supports your claim and reasons
Counter-Claim O Anticipate and address counter- claims or objections. O “Counter” means against. O Ask yourself: “How might someone who disagrees with me respond to my points.” O How do I do this? O Do some research. It may seem like no one would disagree with your position but someone probably has or will. O Talk with a friend or with your teacher. O For example: You may claim “Cats make the best pets because they are self-cleaning and independent.” O Imagine someone saying, “Cats do not make the best pets. They are dirty and needy.” O How would you respond or prove them different?
The Rhetorical Triangle O Remember: O Ethos = Expert on topic O Logos = Logic, Facts/Statistics, Common knowledge O Pathos = Emotions (Pity), Experiences
Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Background O Delivered on August 19, 1588 by Queen Elizabeth I of England to the land forces assembled in preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada. O The Armada had been drive out of the Strait of Dover in the Battle of Gravelines eleven days earlier, and by now rounded Scotland on its way home, but troops were still being held at the ready in case the Spanish army decided to invade from Dunkirk. Two days later the troops were discharged. O The Queen left her bodyguards and went before the assembled troops with only an escort of 6 advisors.
Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Let’s Analyze O Queen Elizabeth I is sending her men to fight the Spanish Armada. What do you know about the audience based on the information in the speech? How does she take the audience into account? O How does Queen Elizabeth I use the audience’s faith and belief in God as a way to convince them to believe and agree with her? Why is it a good idea for her to remind them of her divine right as a ruler before sending them into battle? O At one point she says that she is going to fight beside them, and then she says she will not. Explain what she means and what she is doing here. How is she manipulating her audience? O Identify an appeal to pathos. How is it effective? O One appeal to logos she makes is when she reminds them that she will be paying them money to fight. To which audience is she specifically speaking when she mentions this? O One effective rhetorical device in this speech is her manipulation of diction. Provide one example of effective word choice and discuss how this word/phrase impacts the quality of the argument.
Speech to the Troops at Tilbury: Let’s Discuss OThis is a successful speech. Why? O What is Queen Elizabeth’s Claim? What is she trying to convince her audience of? ODoes she reference any type of Counter-Claim? Why or why not? OElizabeth uses all of the appeals – logos, pathos, and ethos – to convince all of her listeners to fight for her from the loyal follower to the greedy mercenary. How? OThe tone shifts throughout the selection. Where? But more importantly, why?