2 After completing this chapter, you will be able to define persuasion and describe the persuasive processanalyze listeners’ needs and positionscreate logical, emotional, and credibility appealsdemonstrate ethical standardsidentify false persuasion strategiesconstruct and deliver a persuasive messageevaluate persuasive messagesdiscuss the ethics of persuasion
3 Persuasion is a communication process with a goal of influencing other people.
4 A persuasive message is a communication strategy designed to change a listener’s beliefs or behavior or to move a listener to action.
5 To persuade an audience, a speaker must focus on the RECIEVERS of the persuasive message.
6 A successful persuader tries to influence his/her audience by putting them in a mental state of conflict.
7 Persuasion is a very powerful communication process Persuasion is a very powerful communication process. In its simplest form, you are making an if and then argument: If you do this, then good things will happen or bad things will be avoided.
8 There are two factors you have to consider as you develop your persuasive competence: 1. ethics 2. impact
9 Ethical persuaders do not ignore information that might weaken their positions. They consider both sides, acknowledge what might be important points on the opposing side, note why they disagree with some or all of those points, and try to convince the listeners why their positions are stronger.
10 Steps in the Persuasive Process Decide on an audience goal.Analyze the listeners.Create logical, emotional, and credibility appeals.Organize and deliver the persuasive message.Evaluate your effectiveness.
11 To become a competent persuader, you must analyze your listeners to identify (1) their needs and (2) their positions on your topic.
13 Listener Positions Supportive Listeners Uncommitted Listeners agree with your ideasUncommitted Listenershave no set opinionIndifferent Listenersdon’t yet careOpposed Listenersare hostile toward your topic or ideas
14 The Greek philosopher Aristotle first prescribed the three strategies for persuasive speaking. He called them logos (logic), pathos (emotion), and ethos (credibility).
15 Types of Appeals Logical Appeals Emotional Appeals Credibility Appeals use solid evidence and sound reasoningEmotional Appealsuse listeners’ feelings to persuade themCredibility Appealsmake a speaker believable
16 You can test evidence with the following questions: Is it fact or opinion?Is it current?Is the source credible?Is it relevant?Is it valid or representative?
18 Types of Reasoning Inductive reasoning involves using specific pieces of information tomake a generalconclusion.Small to BigDeductive reasoninginvolves using a generalidea to reach aconclusion about aspecific case.Big to Small
19 It is important to test inductive reasoning by looking at the connection between evidence and conclusion.You need to consider these factors:Are there enough examples?Are they topical?Are there important exceptions or special cases?
20 When you use deductive reasoning, you need to test it by asking yourself the following questions: Is the general statement true?Is the specific example true?Does the specific example apply the the general statement?
21 Cause and effect reasoning suggests the one event produces a second.
22 Emotional Appeals Guilt Fear Freedom Justice Greed Patriotism BelongingAngerHappiness
23 Credibility Appeals Believability Ethical Standards Demonstrate your knowledge of a topic.Ethical StandardsConform to acceptable standards of conduct.Recognize competing or opposing points of view.Demonstrate that you have done careful research (Tell us your sources).
24 Sometimes speakers use incorrect or misleading appeals, called faulty appeals, to try to persuade their audience members.
25 False Persuasive Strategies Defective Evidence (flawed information)Slippery Slope (once something happens it establishes a trend and other things)Red Herring (not related to topic)Glittering Generalities (vague, general statements)Card Stacking (piling up information on one side of an issue with little backing)Bandwagon Appeal (do something because everyone else is)Unrelated Testimonials (link things that are not related)Name-calling (attacking the other person, not their ideas)
26 Organizing the Persuasive Speech Statement of ReasonsProblem-SolutionMotivated Sequence
27 Statement of Reasons For supportive listeners, just listing three or four reasons may be enough to get yourmessage across and inspire them to act onyour proposal.
28 Problem-Solution When using the problem-solution organization, the speaker describes theproblem, relating consequences or reasonsto be concerned, and then describes waysto solve the problem.
29 Motivated, or Hey-You-See-So, Method Hey, look or listen to me!You need to here what I’m saying.See what I can do for you!So, what are you going to do about it?
30 Effective Persuaders follow these guidelines for preparing a persuasive argument: Use a variety of supports rather than only one type.Make the links between the supports and the main ideas clear.Anticipate objections and address them directly.Keep listeners’ interests and concerns in mind. Don’t think, “What would persuade me?” Ask, “What would persuade these listeners?”
31 You can evaluate a persuasive message by asking How credible is the speaker?What logical appeals are being used by the speaker?What emotional appeals are being used? Are they appropriate?To what extent does the message reflect an understanding of both sides on the issue?What, if anything, is unsaid or overlooked?
32 Summary Effective persuaders use the following steps: Decide on an audience goal.Analyze the listeners.Create logical, emotional, and credibility appeals.Organize and deliver the message.Evaluate the message’s effectiveness.