Pathos [Gr. emotion] “A direct appeal to your emotions” ◦ Ex. advertising ◦ Ex. political speeches What is the purpose of the pathos? (Why is the author trying to convince you to do something?)
Ethos [Gr. Character] “An argument about credulity (believability)” ◦ The writer attempts to convince the reader that he is a credible source of information. What is the purpose of the writer using ethos? (Why is he/she trying to get you to believe something?)
Logos [Gr. Reason] “A rational and reasonable argument” ◦ Author’s point-of-view ◦ Testimonials ◦ Historical citations Is the claim sound or the evidence valid?
Inductive A type of logos argument Proof by example ◦ Scientists look for trends in data to draw conclusions. Is the author’s point- of-view valid?
Deductive A type of logos argument Based on claims the writer asserts are true If A is true, and B is true, then C must be true. Are the claims valid? Do they result in the conclusion stated? I drive a car. My car is red. My car is a Ferrari.
Syllogism A particular type of deductive argument Two premises and a conclusion ◦ All humans Die. Mona is a human. Therefore, Mona will die. ◦ God created mankind. All of God’s creatures are good. Therefore, mankind is good. Are the premises true or faulty?
Rhetorical Essay Structure Introduction Purpose, audience, strategies Tone ◦ Diction ◦ Syntax ◦ Figurative language Rhetorical Strategy Conclusion