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Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future Jules Janick Department of Horticulture Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana.

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Presentation on theme: "Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future Jules Janick Department of Horticulture Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future Jules Janick Department of Horticulture Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

2 Time Frame: Agriculture & Fruit Culture 10,000Neolithic RevolutionDiscovery of Agriculture 8000–5000Second Neolithic Revolution Villages to Urban communities Origin of fruit culture 5000–3000Bronze AgeHorticultural arts (irrigation, vegetative propagation, processing, selection) 3000–2000Greek and Roman Antiquity Sophisticated fruit culture

3 Gathering Grain, 4000 BCE. Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria. Date palm flanked by gazelle, in Egypt, 4000–3000 BCE

4 The Uruk Vase, Late 4 th Millennium BCE

5 Grain & Fruit Production in Egypt, 1279 BCE

6 Vincenzo Campi 1580 Our fruits are gifts of diversity, not results of systematic breeding, but to unique selection events by unsung and unremembered farmers.

7 Origin of Fruit Crops Mediterranean basin Date palm, fig, grape, olive, pomegranate EuropePlum, raspberry Central AsiaPome fruits, apricot East AsiaBanana, citrus, peach, kiwifruit, mango, persimmon AfricaSycomore fig, coffee AmericasAvocado, blackberry, papaya, pineapple, strawberry, Vacciniums

8 Fruit Domestication Recognition of species Selection of elite genotypes Vegetative propagation technology Cultivation technology Pruning and training, irrigation, pollination, pest control Utilization Storage, drying, fermentation, processing Dispersal of fruit crops with human migration Most fruit crops are closer to wild species than annual crops such as grains

9 Elite selections from Kazakhstan Commercial Apples

10 Genetic Changes Associated with Domestication in Fruit Crops Breakdown of dioecy Fig, grape, papaya, strawberry (unchanged, date palm, kiwifruit) Loss of self- incompatibility Cherry Parthenocarpy & seedlessness Apple & pear, banana & plantain, citrus, fig, grape, loquat, persimmon, pineapple

11 AllopolyploidyBanana & plantain, blackberry & raspberry, blueberry, tart cherry, European plum, strawberry Triploidy: banana and plantain, apple, pear Tetraploid : tart cherry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, kiwifruit (Actinidia sinensis) Hexaploid: European plums, kiwifruit (A. deliciosa) Octaploid: strawberry

12 Ease of vegetative propagation Offshoots: date palm Rooting: apple (rootstock) Nucellar embryony: citrus, mango Loss of toxic substances “Sweet” seed: almond Non-astrigency: apple & pear, persimmon, pomegranate Loss of spines, thorns, or pubescence Apple, brambles, citrus, peach, pear, pineapple

13 Recent Domesticates Kiwifruit Vacciniums Cranberry Blueberry Lingonberry

14 Kiwifruit

15 Cranberry and Lingonberry

16 Blueberry

17 Genetic Structure of Fruit Crops Cross pollination High heterogeneity Asexually propagated Large size Long juvenility Polyploid Self-incompatible Sterility and seedlessness Apomictic

18 Origin of Fruit Breeding Jean Baptiste Van Mons (1765–1842) Thomas Andrew Knight (1759–1838)

19 Origin of Fruit Breeding Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) Luther Burbank (1849–1926)

20 Levels of Fruit Breeding PrimitiveVegetative propagation of unique clones Mass culture of superior clones Selection of chance seedlings Propagation of clonal variants Conventional Breeding Recombination of elite clones Interspecific recombination Backcross breeding Mutation breeding BiotechnologyEmbryo rescue Paraplast fusion Marker assisted selection Transgenic breeding

21 Effects of Organized Fruit Breeding on the Commercial World Industry NegligibleSlightModerateMajor Banana & plantain Chestnut Date palm Fig Grape (wine) Lingonberry Olive Pomegranate Tart cherry Citrus Cranberry Hazelnut Kiwifruit Papaya Persimmon Pear European Pineapple Almond Apple Apricot Avocado Pear Asian Pecan Blueberry Brambles (raspberry & blackberry) Cherry (sweet) Currants Grape (table) Strawberry Peach & nectarine Plum

22 Advantages of Conventional Fruit Breeding Evolutionary Progress is cumulative—improved selections serve as parents Transgressive Offspring can exceed either parent

23 Limitations of Conventional Breeding Technical Expensive Long juvenile period Large plants expensive to maintain Difficulty of selection Inability to preserve unique genotypes Genetic recombination uncontrollable (no way to induce small changes) Linkage of desirable and undesirable traits Restricted to natural-occurring variation or random mutations

24 Limitations of Conventional Breeding Nontechnical Must compete with seedlings found world-wide Market resistance to new cultivars Patent costs and restrictions Testing problems

25 Allows insertion of single genes without disruption of genotype Not limited by sexual barriers Multigene transfer possible Permits selection by molecular markers (independent of development or emvironment) Bioengineering (vaccines, plastics, oils) Advantages of Transgene Technology

26 Technical Transformation impediments Selection of transgene Identification and isolation of transgenes Chimeral problems Expression Shortage of suitable promoters Testing problems Limitations of Transgene Technology

27 Nontechnical Legal problems Consumer resistance Limitations of Transgene Technology

28 Banana

29 Evolution of Cultivated Bananas

30 Pineapple

31 Propagation of Pineapple

32 Spineless Mutation

33 Del Monte Gold

34 Mandarin Citrus

35 Nucellar Embryony

36 Color Sports in Grapefruit

37 Interspecific Hybridization in Citrus (Grapefruit) (Mandarin) (Orange)

38 Page Minneola Tangelo × Tangerine × Grapefruit

39 Murcott × Tangor Tangerine × Orange

40 Strategies for Breeding Seedless Citrus Ploidy Manipulation (French system) 1.Exploit Nonreduction in diploids Chomosome counts or flow cytometry Exploit Small seeds with embryo rescue 2.Diploid × Tetraploid crosses 3.Protoplast Fusion Produce haploids by irradiated pollen x+2x somatic hybridization and embryo regeneration 4.Regeneration of triploid endosperm Induce Sterility by Irradiation (Israeli system)

41 Achievements at CIRAD/INRA of triploid breeding of citrus with the 2x × 4x strategy

42 Stone Fruits (Prunus) Peach Plum Apricot Cherry Almond

43 Peach from Pompeii

44 Stoneless Plum (Callahan Dardick Scorza JASH 1934 2009)

45 Synteny in Prunus & Malus PrunusMalusPrunusMalus PrunusMalus

46 Pome Fruits (Apple, Pear)



49 Barrel Sprayer

50 History of the PRI Program

51 Jules JanickEd WilliamsFred HoughDan DaytonRalph Shay

52 Sources of Scab-resistance

53 Dominant Resistance M. atrosanguinea (2 genes) M. baccata jackii Dolgo M. floribunda 821 Geneva Jonsib M. micromalus M. prunifolia 19651 M. prunifolia microcarpa 782-26 M. prunifolia xanthocarpa 591-25 Morton Arboretum 4, 8, 16, 1255 Russian 12740-7A (2+ genes) Multigenic Resistance Antonovka M. baccata (selected seedlings) M. sargentii 843 M. sieboldii 2972-22 M. toringo 852 M. zumi calocarpa Sources of Resistance

54 VfM. floribunda VmM. micromalus (pit) VrRussian VbjM. baccata jackii Vb Hansens’s baccata #2 VaAntonovka (pit) Defined Gene Pools



57 Transferring V f by Backcrossing

58 PRI Releases Prima1970 Priscilla1972 Sir Prize1975 Jonafree1979 Redfree1981 Dayton1988 Williams’ Pride1988 Enterprise1993 Pristine1993 GoldRush1993 Scarlett O’Hara2000 Pixie Crunch2002 Sundance2002 CrimsonCrisp2005 Joint Releases Viking (Wisc.)1969 Priam (France)1974 McShay (Ore.)1988 Primiera (Italy)1995 Nambu (Japan)1994 Constance (Ger.)1995 Primivera (Can.)1996 Juliet (France)1999

59 Pixie Crunch CrimsonCrisp PrimaRedfree PristineEnterprise GoldRush Williams’ Pride Sundance

60 Races of Venturia inaequalis RaceSourceSusceptible Material 1WorldwideMost of the world’s cultivars 2South Dakota, USAM. baccata, ‘Dolgo’, ‘Alexis’, ‘Bittercrab’ segregates of R12740-7A, ‘Geneva’ 3Nova Scotia, Canada‘Geneva’ 4Lafayette, IN, USASegregates of R12740-7A 5Norwich, England Micromalus pit type resistance, M. atrosangunia 804 6 Ahrensburg, Germany‘Prima’ (Vf cultivars) but not Evereste’ M. × ‘Perpetu’ and M. floribunda 821 7England and Europe M. floribunda 821

61 Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) Subtropical Pome Fruit

62 Triploid Loquat Seedling ploidy No. seedlings% Diploid44,82899.31 Triploid2250.50 Tetraploid500.11 Pentaploid100.02 Mixoploid260.06

63 Seeded diploid loquat as compared to seedless triploid (courtesy of G. Liang)

64 Molecular linkage map obtained from ‘Algerie’ and ‘Zaozhong-6’

65 Transgenic ‘SunUp’-Hawaii (CP/CP) Transgenic ‘Rainbow’-Hawaii (CP/-) Transgenic ‘Khaknuan’ ThailandTolerant ‘Thapra 2’ Thailand Papaya Resistant to PRSV (D. Gonsalves)

66 Conclusions Our fruits are legacies of Neolithic and Bronze Age farmers Persistence of farmer-selected cultivars due to unique quality factors making them difficult to replace Deficiencies made up by cultural techniques and genetic changes

67 Future Advances: 1.Search for specific mutations (parthenocarpy and seedlessness, breakdown of dioecy, loss of compatibility, high sugar, loss of astringency) 2.Use of interspecific crosses to create new fruits (Citrus, Prunus, Rubus) 3.Selection of underexploited germplasm (pitaya) 4.Induction of seedlessness 5.Transfer of genetic resistance to diseases and pests 6.Increased use of biotechnology (marker assisted selection, new traits, early flowering) 7.Emphasis on consumer satisfaction

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