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Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future

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Presentation on theme: "Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fruit Breeding: Past, Present, and Future
Jules Janick Department of Horticulture Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana

2 Time Frame: Agriculture & Fruit Culture
10,000 Neolithic Revolution Discovery of Agriculture 8000–5000 Second Neolithic Revolution Villages to Urban communities Origin of fruit culture 5000–3000 Bronze Age Horticultural arts (irrigation, vegetative propagation, processing, selection) 3000–2000 Greek and Roman Antiquity Sophisticated fruit culture

3 Gathering Grain, 4000 BCE. Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria.
Date palm flanked by gazelle, in Egypt, 4000–3000 BCE

4 The Uruk Vase, Late 4th Millennium BCE
This is the Uruk Vase, made over 5000 years ago, from the biblical city of Erech (near Basra) in present day Iraq. It was one of the treasures missing from the Bagdad Museum that has recently been restored. In a wedding feast an attendant offers a basket of fruit to the Goddess Inana (later known as Ishtar). Horticulture becomes part of religious practice.

5 Grain & Fruit Production in Egypt, 1279 BCE

6 Our fruits are gifts of diversity, not results of systematic breeding, but to unique selection events by unsung and unremembered farmers. Vincenzo Campi 1580

7 Origin of Fruit Crops Mediterranean basin
Date palm, fig, grape, olive, pomegranate Europe Plum, raspberry Central Asia Pome fruits, apricot East Asia Banana, citrus, peach, kiwifruit, mango, persimmon Africa Sycomore fig, coffee Americas Avocado, blackberry, papaya, pineapple, strawberry, Vacciniums

8 Fruit Domestication Recognition of species
Selection of elite genotypes Vegetative propagation technology Cultivation technology Pruning and training, irrigation, pollination, pest control Utilization Storage, drying, fermentation, processing Dispersal of fruit crops with human migration Most fruit crops are closer to wild species than annual crops such as grains

9 Elite selections from Kazakhstan
Commercial Apples Elite selections from Kazakhstan

10 Genetic Changes Associated with Domestication in Fruit Crops
Breakdown of dioecy Fig, grape, papaya, strawberry (unchanged, date palm, kiwifruit) Loss of self-incompatibility Cherry Parthenocarpy & seedlessness Apple & pear, banana & plantain, citrus, fig, grape, loquat, persimmon, pineapple

11 Allopolyploidy Banana & plantain, blackberry & raspberry, blueberry, tart cherry, European plum, strawberry Triploidy: banana and plantain, apple, pear Tetraploid : tart cherry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, kiwifruit (Actinidia sinensis) Hexaploid: European plums, kiwifruit (A. deliciosa) Octaploid: strawberry

12 Loss of toxic substances
“Sweet” seed: almond Non-astrigency: apple & pear, persimmon, pomegranate Ease of vegetative propagation Offshoots: date palm Rooting: apple (rootstock) Nucellar embryony: citrus, mango Loss of spines, thorns, or pubescence Apple, brambles, citrus, peach, pear, pineapple

13 Recent Domesticates Kiwifruit Vacciniums Cranberry Blueberry

14 Kiwifruit

15 Cranberry and Lingonberry

16 Blueberry

17 Genetic Structure of Fruit Crops
Cross pollination High heterogeneity Asexually propagated Large size Long juvenility Polyploid Self-incompatible Sterility and seedlessness Apomictic

18 Origin of Fruit Breeding
Jean Baptiste Van Mons (1765–1842) Thomas Andrew Knight (1759–1838)

19 Origin of Fruit Breeding
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) Luther Burbank (1849–1926)

20 Levels of Fruit Breeding
Primitive Vegetative propagation of unique clones Mass culture of superior clones Selection of chance seedlings Propagation of clonal variants Conventional Breeding Recombination of elite clones Interspecific recombination Backcross breeding Mutation breeding Biotechnology Embryo rescue Paraplast fusion Marker assisted selection Transgenic breeding

21 Effects of Organized Fruit Breeding on the Commercial World Industry
Negligible Slight Moderate Major Banana & plantain Chestnut Date palm Fig Grape (wine) Lingonberry Olive Pomegranate Tart cherry Citrus Cranberry Hazelnut Kiwifruit Papaya Persimmon Pear European Pineapple Almond Apple Apricot Avocado Pear Asian Pecan Blueberry Brambles (raspberry & blackberry) Cherry (sweet) Currants Grape (table) Strawberry Peach & nectarine Plum

22 Advantages of Conventional Fruit Breeding
Evolutionary Progress is cumulative—improved selections serve as parents Transgressive Offspring can exceed either parent

23 Limitations of Conventional Breeding
Technical Expensive Long juvenile period Large plants expensive to maintain Difficulty of selection Inability to preserve unique genotypes Genetic recombination uncontrollable (no way to induce small changes) Linkage of desirable and undesirable traits Restricted to natural-occurring variation or random mutations

24 Limitations of Conventional Breeding
Nontechnical Must compete with seedlings found world-wide Market resistance to new cultivars Patent costs and restrictions Testing problems

25 Advantages of Transgene Technology
Allows insertion of single genes without disruption of genotype Not limited by sexual barriers Multigene transfer possible Permits selection by molecular markers (independent of development or emvironment) Bioengineering (vaccines, plastics, oils)

26 Limitations of Transgene Technology
Technical Transformation impediments Selection of transgene Identification and isolation of transgenes Chimeral problems Expression Shortage of suitable promoters Testing problems

27 Limitations of Transgene Technology
Nontechnical Legal problems Consumer resistance

28 Banana

29 Evolution of Cultivated Bananas

30 Pineapple

31 Propagation of Pineapple

32 Spineless Mutation

33 Del Monte Gold

34 Citrus Mandarin

35 Nucellar Embryony

36 Color Sports in Grapefruit

37 Interspecific Hybridization in Citrus
(Orange) (Mandarin) (Grapefruit)

38 Tangerine × Grapefruit
Tangelo Minneola × Page

39 Tangerine × Orange Tangor

40 Strategies for Breeding Seedless Citrus
Ploidy Manipulation (French system) Exploit Nonreduction in diploids Chomosome counts or flow cytometry Exploit Small seeds with embryo rescue Diploid × Tetraploid crosses Protoplast Fusion Produce haploids by irradiated pollen x+2x somatic hybridization and embryo regeneration Regeneration of triploid endosperm Induce Sterility by Irradiation (Israeli system)

41 Achievements at CIRAD/INRA of triploid breeding of citrus with the 2x × 4x strategy

42 Stone Fruits (Prunus) Peach Apricot Almond Plum Cherry

43 Peach from Pompeii

44 Stoneless Plum (Callahan Dardick Scorza JASH 1934 2009)

45 Synteny in Prunus & Malus

46 Pome Fruits (Apple, Pear)



49 Barrel Sprayer

50 History of the PRI Program

51 Dan Dayton Jules Janick Ed Williams Fred Hough Ralph Shay

52 Sources of Scab-resistance

53 Sources of Resistance Dominant Resistance Multigenic Resistance
M. atrosanguinea (2 genes) M. baccata jackii Dolgo M. floribunda 821 Geneva Jonsib M. micromalus M. prunifolia M. prunifolia microcarpa M. prunifolia xanthocarpa Morton Arboretum 4, 8, 16, 1255 Russian A (2+ genes) Multigenic Resistance Antonovka M. baccata (selected seedlings) M. sargentii 843 M. sieboldii M. toringo 852 M. zumi calocarpa

54 Defined Gene Pools Vf M. floribunda Vm M. micromalus (pit) Vr Russian
Vbj M. baccata jackii Vb Hansens’s baccata #2 Va Antonovka (pit)



57 Transferring Vf by Backcrossing

58 PRI Releases Prima 1970 Priscilla 1972 Sir Prize 1975 Jonafree 1979
Redfree 1981 Dayton 1988 Williams’ Pride 1988 Enterprise 1993 Pristine 1993 GoldRush 1993 Scarlett O’Hara 2000 Pixie Crunch 2002 Sundance 2002 CrimsonCrisp 2005 Joint Releases Viking (Wisc.) 1969 Priam (France) 1974 McShay (Ore.) 1988 Primiera (Italy) 1995 Nambu (Japan) 1994 Constance (Ger.) 1995 Primivera (Can.) 1996 Juliet (France) 1999

59 Prima Redfree Williams’ Pride Sundance Pristine Enterprise GoldRush Pixie Crunch CrimsonCrisp

60 Races of Venturia inaequalis
Race Source Susceptible Material 1 Worldwide Most of the world’s cultivars 2 South Dakota, USA M. baccata, ‘Dolgo’, ‘Alexis’, ‘Bittercrab’ segregates of R A, ‘Geneva’ 3 Nova Scotia, Canada ‘Geneva’ 4 Lafayette, IN, USA Segregates of R A 5 Norwich, England Micromalus pit type resistance, M. atrosangunia 804 6 Ahrensburg, Germany ‘Prima’ (Vf cultivars) but not Evereste’ M. × ‘Perpetu’ and M. floribunda 821 7 England and Europe M. floribunda 821

61 Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) Subtropical Pome Fruit

62 Triploid Loquat Seedling ploidy No. seedlings % Diploid 44,828 99.31
225 0.50 Tetraploid 50 0.11 Pentaploid 10 0.02 Mixoploid 26 0.06

63 Seeded diploid loquat as compared to seedless triploid (courtesy of G
Seeded diploid loquat as compared to seedless triploid (courtesy of G. Liang)

64 Molecular linkage map obtained from ‘Algerie’ and ‘Zaozhong-6’

65 Papaya Resistant to PRSV (D. Gonsalves)
Transgenic ‘SunUp’-Hawaii (CP/CP) Transgenic ‘Rainbow’-Hawaii (CP/-) Transgenic ‘Khaknuan’ Thailand Tolerant ‘Thapra 2’ Thailand

66 Conclusions Our fruits are legacies of Neolithic and Bronze Age farmers Persistence of farmer-selected cultivars due to unique quality factors making them difficult to replace Deficiencies made up by cultural techniques and genetic changes

67 Future Advances: Search for specific mutations (parthenocarpy and seedlessness, breakdown of dioecy, loss of compatibility, high sugar, loss of astringency) Use of interspecific crosses to create new fruits (Citrus, Prunus, Rubus) Selection of underexploited germplasm (pitaya) Induction of seedlessness Transfer of genetic resistance to diseases and pests Increased use of biotechnology (marker assisted selection, new traits, early flowering) Emphasis on consumer satisfaction

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