2BiotechnologyThe application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industriesThe application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological-agents to provide goods and servicesThe use of living organism and their component in agriculture, food and other industrial processesThe use of microbial, animal and plant cells or enzymes to synthesize, breakdown and transform materialsThe integration of natural sciences and organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues to product and servicesA technology using biological phenomena by copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substance
3Stages of Biotechnology Development Traditional/old biotechnologyThe conventional techniques that have been used to produce beer, wine, cheese, many other foodNew/modern biotechnologyAll methods of genetic modification by recombinant DNA and cell fusion techniques, together with the modern development of traditional biotechnological process
5The Applications of Biotechnology Medical BiotechnologyDiagnosticsTherapeuticsVaccinesAgricultural BiotechnologyPlant agricultureAnimal productionFood processingEnvironmental BiotechnologyCleaning through bioremediationPreventing environmental problemsMonitoring the environment
6Plant agriculture Crop production and protection (Quantity) Genetically engineered (transgenic) cropsUsing biological methods to protect cropsExploiting cooperative relationships in natureNutritional value of crops (Quality)Improving food quality and safetyHealthier cooking oils by decreasing the concentration of saturated fatty acids in vegetable oilsFunctional foodsFoods containing significant levels of biologically active components that impart health benefitsPlant Biotechnology
7Breeding PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY a process to produce a genetically modified plant by removing genetic information from an organism, manipulating it in the laboratory and then transferring it into a plant to change certain of its characteristics .BreedingSystematic process of matching genetic factors from parent plants to produce offspring that are superior to parentsSystematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection, directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level, and introduction of new genes
8Breeding? Application of genetics principles for improvement “Accelerated” and “targeted evolution”An evolution by artificial selectionSystematic process of matching genetic factors from parent plants to produce offspring that are superior to parentsSystematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection, directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level, and introduction of new genes.
9Primary Steps in Plant Breeding Develop a VisionFind or Create Variability (Techniques)Apply Selection PressureEvaluate and Select (Screen)CommercializeVision- developed from your knowledge and experiences w/ horticultural crops, plt pathology, entomology, etc… Sometimes its based on your intuition or expectationsVariability- obtaining the genetic variation for the traits your interested in. Sources include modern cultivars, heirloom cultivars, wild taxa, related species, and now, with biotechnology any living organismTechniques- include traditional or classical plant reproduction such as self and cross pollination. Also includes identification of incompatibility systems or other problems w/ normal reproduction. And now can also be based in biotechnology such as with protoplast fusion or embryo rescue from wide crossesSelection pressure- the development of an evaluation environment that allows for the expression of variation in the trait of interest. You can’t breed for Pythium resistance without Pythium being present in your selection environmentEvaluation/selection- involves the statistical analysis of progenies, Also includes an experimental design that allows for the detection of differences between families or individualsCommercialization- can include establishment of clean stock, bulking up, production, and intellectual property protection
10History of Genetic Modification 1st transgenic plant created1983Mutagenesis breeding1940’s1st fertile intergeneric cross1920’s1860’sDarwin and Mendel science-based selective breedingmid-1700’s1st fertile between species cross8000 BCSelective breeding within species
11Selected milestones in plant breeding 9000 BC First evidence of plant domestication in the hills above the Tigris river1694 Camerarius first to demonstrate sex in (monoecious) plants and suggested crossing as a method to obtain new plant types1714 Mather observed natural crossing in maizeKohlreuter demonstrated that hybrid offspring received traits from both parents and were intermediate in most traits, first scientific hybrid in tobacco1866 Mendel: Experiments in plant hybridization1900 Mendel’s laws of heredity rediscovered1944 Avery, MacLeod, McCarty discovered DNA is hereditary material1953 Watson, Crick, Wilkins proposed a model for DNA structure1970 Borlaug received Nobel Prize for the Green RevolutionBerg, Cohen, and Boyer introduced the recombinant DNA technology1994 ‘FlavrSavr’ tomato developed as first GMO1995 Bt-corn developed
13Importance of Plant breeding? Increases in yield are derived both from improved varieties and from improved management.It suggests about a of crop yield split between genetic gain and gain attributed to management.Planting material is the most important input in agricultureAn improved cultivar is the most economic and least laborious input for crop cultivation
14Does plant breeding work? Corn Yield Trends: 1870 to TodayBushels Per AcreYearOpen Pollinated VarietiesDouble Cross HybridsSingle Cross Hybrids
15Breeding Approach Empirical approach Analytical approach Evaluating grain yield per se as the main selection criterionAnalytical approachAn alternate breeding approach that requires a better understanding of the factors responsible for the development, growth and yieldNew Technology (Improved Technique) for organism“Biotechnology”
17Comparing Genetic Modification Techniques Conventional Breeding Mutation breeding Plant BiotechnologyLevel Precision Certainty LimitsWhole organismMoleculeThousands of genesUnknownSingle geneGenetic change poorly characterizedGene function well understoodBetween species and generaNot applicableNo limitationsWill walk them through this slide, stressing that GE is more precise and predictable and that GE, because it allows us access to all of nature’s diversity, can provide products we’ve only dreamed of before now.
18Traditional plant breeding Traditional donorCommercial varietyNew varietyDNA is a strand of genes, much like a strand of pearls. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at once.(many genes are transferred)X=Desired Gene(crosses)Desired geneModern plant breedingUsing plant biotechnology, a single gene may be added to the strand.Desired geneCommercial varietyNew variety(transfers)=(only desired gene is transferred)
19Nobel Peace Prize Laureate "Never think for a minute that we are going to build permanent peace in this world on empty stomachs and human misery."Norman BorlaugNobel Peace Prize Laureate“Never think for a minute that we are going to build permanent peace in this world on empty stomachs and human misery.”Nobel Peace Prize Laureate,Norman Borlaug