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BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PLANT BREEDING. Biotechnology The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries The.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PLANT BREEDING. Biotechnology The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries The."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PLANT BREEDING

2 Biotechnology The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries The application of biological organisms, systems or processes to manufacturing and service industries The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological-agents to provide goods and services The application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological-agents to provide goods and services The use of living organism and their component in agriculture, food and other industrial processes The use of living organism and their component in agriculture, food and other industrial processes The use of microbial, animal and plant cells or enzymes to synthesize, breakdown and transform materials The use of microbial, animal and plant cells or enzymes to synthesize, breakdown and transform materials The integration of natural sciences and organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues to product and services The integration of natural sciences and organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues to product and services A technology using biological phenomena by copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substance A technology using biological phenomena by copying and manufacturing various kinds of useful substance

3  Traditional/old biotechnology The conventional techniques that have been used to produce beer, wine, cheese, many other food  New/modern biotechnology All methods of genetic modification by recombinant DNA and cell fusion techniques, together with the modern development of traditional biotechnological process Stages of Biotechnology Development

4 Biotechnology: A collection of technologies

5 The Applications of Biotechnology  Medical Biotechnology  Diagnostics  Therapeutics  Vaccines  Agricultural Biotechnology  Plant agriculture  Animal production  Food processing  Environmental Biotechnology Cleaning through bioremediation Cleaning through bioremediation Preventing environmental problems Preventing environmental problems Monitoring the environment Monitoring the environment

6 Plant agriculture Crop production and protection (Quantity) Crop production and protection (Quantity) –Genetically engineered (transgenic) crops –Using biological methods to protect crops –Exploiting cooperative relationships in nature Nutritional value of crops (Quality) Nutritional value of crops (Quality) –Improving food quality and safety –Healthier cooking oils by decreasing the concentration of saturated fatty acids in vegetable oils –Functional foods Foods containing significant levels of biologically active components that impart health benefits Plant Biotechnology

7 PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY. a process to produce a genetically modified plant by removing genetic information from an organism, manipulating it in the laboratory and then transferring it into a plant to change certain of its characteristics. Breeding Systematic process of matching genetic factors from parent plants to produce offspring that are superior to parents Systematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection, directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level, and introduction of new genes

8 Breeding? Application of genetics principles for improvement Application of genetics principles for improvement “Accelerated” and “targeted evolution” “Accelerated” and “targeted evolution” An evolution by artificial selection An evolution by artificial selection Systematic process of matching genetic factors from parent plants to produce offspring that are superior to parents Systematic process of matching genetic factors from parent plants to produce offspring that are superior to parents Systematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection, directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level, and introduction of new genes. Systematic procedures used to improve trait phenotypes by crossing and selection, directed manipulation of the genotype at the DNA sequence level, and introduction of new genes.

9 Primary Steps in Plant Breeding Develop a Vision Find or Create Variability (Techniques) Apply Selection Pressure Evaluate and Select (Screen) Commercialize

10 History of Genetic Modification History of Genetic Modification Selective breeding within species between species 1 st fertile between species cross mid-1700’s 8000 BC Mutagenesis breeding 1860’s Darwin and Mendel science-based selective breeding 1940’s intergeneric 1 st fertile intergeneric cross 1 st transgenic plant created ’s

11 9000 BC First evidence of plant domestication in the hills above the Tigris river 1694Camerarius first to demonstrate sex in (monoecious) plants and suggested crossing as a method to obtain new plant types 1714Mather observed natural crossing in maize Kohlreuter demonstrated that hybrid offspring received traits from both parents and were intermediate in most traits, first scientific hybrid in tobacco 1866Mendel: Experiments in plant hybridization 1900Mendel’s laws of heredity rediscovered 1944Avery, MacLeod, McCarty discovered DNA is hereditary material 1953Watson, Crick, Wilkins proposed a model for DNA structure 1970Borlaug received Nobel Prize for the Green Revolution Berg, Cohen, and Boyer introduced the recombinant DNA technology 1994‘FlavrSavr’ tomato developed as first GMO 1995Bt-corn developed Selected milestones in plant breeding

12 Time Plant Breeding Technologies & Crop Improvement Plant Breeding Technologies & Crop Improvement (A Continuum) Genomics Analytical Technologies Transgenic Traits Biotech/Genetic Engineering Winter Nurseries Computer Technologies Plot Mechanization Quantitative Genetics Statistics Pedigree Breeding Hybridization Open Pollinated Selection Germplasm Improvement ( = higher yields) Proteomics Bioinformatics

13 Importance of Plant breeding? Increases in yield are derived both from improved varieties and from improved management. Increases in yield are derived both from improved varieties and from improved management. It suggests about a of crop yield split between genetic gain and gain attributed to management. It suggests about a of crop yield split between genetic gain and gain attributed to management. Planting material is the most important input in agriculture Planting material is the most important input in agriculture An improved cultivar is the most economic and least laborious input for crop cultivation

14 Bushels Per Acre Year Open Pollinated Varieties Double Cross Hybrids Single Cross Hybrids Does plant breeding work? Corn Yield Trends: 1870 to Today

15 Empirical approach Empirical approach Evaluating grain yield per se as the main selection criterion Analytical approach Analytical approach An alternate breeding approach that requires a better understanding of the factors responsible for the development, growth and yield Breeding Approach New Technology (Improved Technique) for organism “Biotechnology”

16 Which technology?

17 Comparing Genetic Modification Techniques Whole organism Molecule MoleculeMolecule Thousands of genes Unknown Single gene Genetic change poorly characterized Genetic change poorly characterized Gene function well understood Gene function well understood Between species and genera Not applicable No limitations Conventional Breeding Mutation breeding Plant Biotechnology Level Precision Certainty Limits

18 Desired gene Traditional plant breeding DNA is a strand of genes, much like a strand of pearls. Traditional plant breeding combines many genes at once. Traditional donor Commercial variety New variety Desired Gene X = (crosses) (many genes are transferred) Modern plant breeding Using plant biotechnology, a single gene may be added to the strand. Desired gene Commercial variety New variety (transfers) = Desired gene (only desired gene is transferred )

19 " Never think for a minute that we are going to build permanent peace in this world on empty stomachs and human misery." Norman Borlaug Nobel Peace Prize Laureate


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