2 Based on the notion of a “ culture of autism”( Mesibov et al Based on the notion of a “ culture of autism”( Mesibov et al. 2005) the way individuals with ASD think and behave should not be seen as deficits. Rather, literacy experiences should build on each individual’s strengths and interestsReading instruction therefor requires differentiated instruction and support
3 View thru the ASD lens Be discerning & selective when reading comprehensionresearch, data, reports, techniques,recommendations, and strategies to determineThe Fit with ASDViewthru the ASD lens
4 Autism, Cognition and Reading Comprehension Literacy skills provide the foundation for improving quality of life for all regardless of ability of functioning level.Skilled readers do the followingAccess relevant background knowledgeMake inferencesMonitor reading comprehensionDemonstrate fluencyUnderstand structure and vocabulary of textIntegrate relevant information from their own world to make meaning
5 Autism, Cognition and Reading Comprehension It is important to have an understanding of the autism to be able to provide quality literacy instructionIndividuals with ASD my be able to fluently decode because of their strength of word calling and decoding but struggle with comprehension.Characteristics of ASD include differences inSocializationCommunicationRestricted interests and behaviors
6 Characteristics that impact Reading Three models of constructs provide insight into the nature of ASD:Theory of MindExecutive FunctionCentral Coherence
7 Theory of MindFirst introduced by Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith refers to two important abilitiesThe capacity to recognize the thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of others and understand that these mental states are different than our own.Using this understanding to predict the behavior of others.
8 Theory of MindChallenges with perspective taking impacts reading or listening comprehension as one needs to understand how and why a character behaves in a certain wayLiteral interpretation of language, intense interest in certain topics and challenges in engaging in shared experiences impact literacy development.Will have difficulty making predictions and inferences
9 Executive FunctionExecutive function processes are critical for planning and carrying out goal-directed behavior while tuning out unnecessary distractions or information. Some of these processes include planning and initiation, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and fluency.Some individuals have difficulty inhibiting responses or managing impulsesResearch suggests that while individuals with ASD are able to access background knowledge, applying the background knowledge across text can be challenging.
10 Executive FunctionMonitoring and self-correcting is critical for accurate understanding; difference in attention, memory, organizing and planning may make monitoring and self-correction challenging for individuals with ASDThese differences impact literacy experiences
11 Central CoherenceNeuro-typicals tend to focus on meaning or the big pictureIndividuals with ASD focus on the specific detailsWeak central coherence impacts literacy development related to making meaning from text, as selecting important details to create a larger picture becomes critical to comprehensionThe ability to identify relationships between words, concepts and/or experiences leads to missed connectionsAs the complexity of text increases the ability of individuals with ASD to integrate information for meaningful purposes may be challenged.
12 Language Comprehension Differences exist in how individuals with ASD construct meaning from text. These differences include:Acquiring certain vocabulary forms before others ( i.e, nouns before verbs)Difficulty using bound morphemes( play versus played)Challenges with pronouns
13 Examining the Reading Process: What is Reading? Get on the same page to define, understand and measure reading!
14 Defining ReadingOur definitions of reading guide our understanding and viewsDifferent reading assessments are based on different definitions of things like “comprehension”
15 The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Reading is the product of the processes(x not +). It involves language and cognition.It is not as simple as it sounds, because the processes of decoding and understanding are complex and inter-relatedIf you can Decode and have Linguistic Comprehension, you are reading!Gough & Tunmer, 1986
16 The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Problems can arise with D, C or both →Problems with “D only” can be called dyslexiaProblems with “C only” can be called hyperlexia(different than precocious hyperlexia)
17 GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSION HYPERLEXIA“Strong mechanical word recognition with comparatively poor comprehension”GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSIONIN PEOPLE WITH ASDGrigorenko, E. L., Klin, A, Pauls, D. L., Senft, R., Hooper, C., & Volkmar, F. (2002). A descriptive study of hyperlexia in a clinically referred sample of children with developmental delays.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 3-12.
18 Hyperlexia is a learning disability Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or Superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(8),GOOD DECODINGwith POOR COMPREHENSIONIN PEOPLEWITH ASD
19 A more complex definition of reading National Reading Panel (2005), p “A form of dynamic thinking [that] includesinterpreting information through the filter of one’s own knowledge and beliefs,using the author’s organizational plan to think about information (or imposing one’s own organization on ideas),inferring what the author does not tell explicitly,as well as many other cognitive actions.”
20 The purpose and the essence of reading What is comprehension?The purpose and the essence of readingCR
21 Effective Literacy Instruction Research has indicated that engaged behavior is the single best predictor of academic gains for students with disabilitiesStudents with ASD demonstrate differences in executive functioning that make engagement in the classroom challenging
22 Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Understand the text at the word and sentence level, “word knowledge”Identify relevant information
23 Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Relate, compare and integrate to what is already known a.k.a. “world knowledge” or prior knowledgeInternalize to own experience
24 Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Create a new construct or idea, the gist or meaningStore the new ideaRetrieve upon demand
25 Factors contributing to reading comprehension Fluent word recognition skillsVocabulary knowledgeWorld knowledgeComprehension monitoringActive use of comprehension strategiesPressley, M. (2001). Comprehension Instruction: What Makes Sense Now, What Might Make Sense Soon
26 What good comprehenders do Know why they are readingUnderstand the pointRelate to prior knowledgeRelate to other textSee cause and effectInterpret characters’ actions and emotionsUnderstand the author’s intentions
27 What good comprehenders do Monitor understandingUse strategies flexibly and in combinationRe-readLook backPredictRevise/repairInferSummarizeMark, highlight
28 5 types of reading comprehension All five types of reading comprehension may be challenges for readers with ASD who can decode but don’t understandLiteralInferentialCriticalAffectiveLexical(Adapted from Salvia & Ysseldyke, Assessment in inclusive and special education, ninth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.)
29 1. Literal comprehension Understanding explicit material in text
30 2. Inferential comprehension Understanding ideas beyond the literal text by interpreting, synthesizing and extending meaning
31 3. Critical comprehension Meaning derived by evaluating, analyzing, and making judgments about material that was read.
32 4. Affective comprehension Relating to the material at a personal and emotional level.
33 5. Lexical comprehension Making sense of text by knowing the meaning of key vocabulary words.
34 Communication The language-literacy link Understanding oral languageLanguage processingAuditory processingDifficulties with speaking, listening and understanding affect literacy:reading and writing
35 The language-literacy link A different timeline/uneven developmentReceptive and Expressive Vocabulary(number of words)Vocabulary GapLiteral and concrete vs. figurative, abstract and inferredDifficulty with images, imagination & imagery
36 Communication Affects Comprehension Good readers ask questions before, during and after reading.Generating questions before reading helps establish purpose and focus.Questioning text while reading helps integrate the material with background knowledge.Questioning while reading is a way to monitor comprehension.After reading, good readers ask questions about the meaning of what they read and how to apply the information to their own lives.
37 Shades of Meaning Activity Teaches synonyms, expands vocabularyReveals the hidden meaning behind wordsTeaches connotation: the emotion and intention attached to specific wordsClarifies the perspective and intention of characters or the author (social thinking)
38 Shades of Meaning RATE (+ – or =) & RANK (light to heavy) SLENDERANOREXICTHINSKINNYPLUMPCURVYOBESEPLUS-SIZEDUGLYUNATTRACTIVEUNSIGHTLYPLAININTELLECTUALSHREWDCLEVERASTUTE
39 Effective Literacy Instruction Well implemented instructional strategies can build upon identified strengths.These include:Visual spatial processingKeen awareness of visual and/or cognitive detailRote memoryAttachment to routine
40 Effective Literacy Instruction Well implemented instructional strategies can build upon identified strengths.These include:Visual spatial processingKeen awareness of visual and/or cognitive detailRote memoryAttachment to routine
41 Comprehension Activity: Social Thinking and Theory of Mind In random order, write down two things about yourself that are true, AND one “believable lie” on an index card.A volunteer will read to the classTry to guess which statement is not true. Talk about it!.Relationship to comprehension
42 R &R affects C Poverty of Experience is not experienced only by the poor Perseveration: The knowledge and experience base in ASD are narrow and deep instead of shallow and wideLimited background knowledge and exposure to a wide range of topics…and the language that goes with it.Affects vocabulary, word knowledge, world knowledge and conversationDisinterest in stories about non-preferred topics, less motivation, less reading:
43 Effective Literacy Instruction Six categories of instructional strategies with strong evidenced based are:Organized classroom environmentVisual supportsStructured instructionCurricular modificationsEmbedded supportsMaintenance and generalization planning
44 Effective Literacy Instruction Two steps to assist in clarifying expectations and reducing competing information areSegment the spaceClear boundaries to specify the different areas of the classroomOnly relevant materials in each segmented spaceMinimize auditory and visual distractions
45 Effective Literacy Instruction Visual SupportsProvide information that is accessible and stable over timeReduces anxiety and difficulty around transitions since students are able to ‘see’ upcoming events and activitiesOne type of these is the schedule, there should be two ( classroom and individual)Individual is for those that benefit from additional concrete information
46 Effective Literacy Instruction Visual Supports: Work SystemsWork Systems visually answer four questionsWhat task or activity is the student to engage in ?How much work is required OR how long will it take ?How will the student know that progress is being made or the activity is finished?What happens next, after the work or activity is finished
47 Effective Literacy Instruction ABA strategies that are helpful in literacy instructionTask analysisPromptingReinforcementChaining
48 Task AnalysisThis involves breaking down complex behavior into its component parts.Skills can be broken into many steps and taught in a number of phases
49 PromptIn ABA framework a prompt or a cue ( stimulus) is provided to the student; the child responds, and a consequence followsLeast to most prompts is a prompting strategy that can be used in effective literacy instruction. Least to most prompts may follow this hierarchy:GesturalVisualVerbalModelPhysical
50 ReinforcementReinforcement is used to increase the use of a target skill or behavior. It is the contingent presentation of a reinforcer immediately following a student’s use of the skillTo effectively use positive reinforcement, teachers must first establish a target skill and performance criteriaThe steps in a task analysis form a behavioral chain that can be taught. The process of reinforcing responses that occur in a sequence to form complex behavior is called chaining
51 Contexts for Building Emergent Literacy Skills Shared Book ReadingStyle of book reading in which the adult and child have rich conversations about the content and pictures in the textInteractive or dialogic book readingDramatic Storytelling and RetellingActivity in which children invent and act out stories or retell stories heard or readInteractive RoutinesPredictable, repeated actions written down as a schedule or chart
52 Contexts for Building Emergent Literacy Skills Music and movementEnlarged print versions of lyrics written as interactive chartsLanguage Experience activitiesActivity in which the teacher guides a discussion and written record of shared experienceSigning-in and signing-upActivity in which children write their name on a piece of paper when they come to school in the morning or for turn taking purposesGamesType of play for targeting emergent literacy skills
53 Use of PowerPoint to Create Stories PowerTalk PresentationPowerTalk.ppttom_sawyer_ce.ppt..\I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a.ppt