2 Oral Language and Vocabulary Development “Research consistently demonstrates that the more children know about language the better equipped they are to succeed in reading.”—Burns, Griffin, & Snow, 1999, p. 8Oral language involves both speaking and listening and includes vocabulary developmentChildren need opportunities to engage in frequent conversations—to talk and listen to responsive adults and to their peers
3 Essential Language Systems PhonologyVocabularyThe basic sound units of languageKnowledge of words and their meaningsGrammarPragmaticsSystem for combining words into phrases and sentences that make senseAppropriate use of language to communicate effectively (includes extended discourse)
4 The Language-Literacy Connection Oral LanguageReading and WritingAlphabetic principle (how sounds in spoken words are represented by letters in written words)PhonologyListening comprehensionWord recognitionReading comprehensionVocabularyListening comprehensionReading comprehensionGrammarListening and reading comprehensionWritten compositionUnderstanding what teachers sayPragmatics
5 Features of Oral Language Typical five-year-olds are learning:VocabularyPragmatics (extended discourse skills)Oral Language Accomplishments
6 A Language-Centered Classroom TeachersEngage children in extended conversationsEncourage children to tell and retell stories and eventsDiscuss a wide range of topics and word meaningsUse new and unusual wordsAsk open-ended questionsGive explicit guidance in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciationEncourage language playChildrenExplore and experiment with languageName and describe objects in the classroomAsk and answer wh- and how questionsHear good models of language useDiscuss topics of interest to them
7 Grouping for Instruction Provide many opportunities for children to interact with:Teachers and other adultsEach other one-on-one, in small groups, and in the whole groupProvide activity settings that incorporate a variety of grouping formats to encourage more language and literacy-related interactions.
8 Vocabulary Development Generate interest in new wordsRelate new words to children’s personal experiencesHelp children make connections and attach meanings to new words and concepts that go beyond a label or definition
9 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Naming:Name objects related to themeName objects by categoryName objects by attributesDescribing:Name object and its categoryDescribe object’s function(s)Describe object’s attributesCompare with other objectsBuild vocabulary and descriptive skills.Adapted from Neuhaus Education Center, Bellaire,Texas
10 Diverse Experiences Scaffold Adjust instruction to account for the differences in children’s knowledge and experiences.ScaffoldTeacherAmount of SupportIndependentIntroducedLearnedKnowledge
11 Scaffolding Children’s Language Model the use of extended languageUse questions and prompts (or cues)Restate and expand ideas using new vocabulary and sentence patternsRequest clarification and elaborationPromote questions among childrenProvide feedback to encourage, explain, and evaluate responses
12 Progress MonitoringMonitor oral language development by listening to individual children’s languageAdapt instruction to meet individual needs
18 What We Know from Research Students develop vocabulary through:wide readingexplicit vocabulary instruction— reading a lot— reading different types of texts— focusing on specific words and their meanings
19 Planning Vocabulary Instruction Before reading, select specific words to teach:Preview the passageList words that you predict will be challenging for your studentsPrioritize these words by their importance
20 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Includes . . . Expanding word knowledge through definitions and contextsActively involving studentsTeaching independent word-learning strategies
21 Expanding Word Knowledge Vocabulary WordsDefinitions(what words and word parts mean)Contexts(how words are used)Reword definitions and analyzeCreate sentences or stories using new vocabularySynonymsExamplesDiscuss multiplemeaningsAntonymsNon-examples
22 Actively Involving Students Concept-of-Definition (Word) Maps Help students make connectionsConcept-of-Definition (Word) MapsSemantic MappingGraphic OrganizersContent Word Walls
23 Content Word WallsServe as a review of key concepts and spellings of content-related words and word parts (morphemes)Encourage students to use the newly-learned words in their reading, writing, and speaking across content areas
24 Activity Find the Content Word Wall Planner (Handout 5) Work in groups of two or threeComplete one of the word walls:Decide on a content areaChoose a topic and create a word listInclude two vocabulary-building activities
25 Engage in Lively Discussions Discussions of words and related concepts help students:Learn meanings of words and word partsModel analysis of words from word partsMake connections between concepts and words(morphemes)
26 Word Consciousnesshelps students develop a deeper understanding of wordspromotes an understanding of how words and concepts are related across different contextsAn awareness of and interest in words and their meanings . . .
27 Teaching Independent Word-Learning Strategies how to analyze meanings of word parts in multi-syllabic wordshow to determine the meaning of words based on their contexthow to look up unknown wordshow to read and understand a dictionary entryhow to recognize and use information about word parts to determine meaningModel and help students learn . . .
28 Stop and Think About It Materials: “Stop and Think About It: Vocabulary Development” handoutTeacher’s Edition of your reading programDirections:Select one of the stories in your Teacher’s EditionComplete the chart
29 Monitoring Students’ Progress: Vocabulary Knowledge Students know words to varying degreesThree Levels of word knowledge:EstablishedAcquaintedUnknown
30 Remember . . .Explicit vocabulary instruction “can deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings” to help them “understand what they are hearing or reading” as well as “help them use words accurately in speaking and writing.”—National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 36