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Beginning Oral Language and Vocabulary Development

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1 Beginning Oral Language and Vocabulary Development
This publication is based on Kindergarten Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission. 1

2 Oral Language and Vocabulary Development
“Research consistently demonstrates that the more children know about language the better equipped they are to succeed in reading.” —Burns, Griffin, & Snow, 1999, p. 8 Oral language involves both speaking and listening and includes vocabulary development Children need opportunities to engage in frequent conversations—to talk and listen to responsive adults and to their peers

3 Essential Language Systems
Phonology Vocabulary The basic sound units of language Knowledge of words and their meanings Grammar Pragmatics System for combining words into phrases and sentences that make sense Appropriate use of language to communicate effectively (includes extended discourse)

4 The Language-Literacy Connection
Oral Language Reading and Writing Alphabetic principle (how sounds in spoken words are represented by letters in written words) Phonology Listening comprehension Word recognition Reading comprehension Vocabulary Listening comprehension Reading comprehension Grammar Listening and reading comprehension Written composition Understanding what teachers say Pragmatics

5 Features of Oral Language
Typical five-year-olds are learning: Vocabulary Pragmatics (extended discourse skills) Oral Language Accomplishments

6 A Language-Centered Classroom
Teachers Engage children in extended conversations Encourage children to tell and retell stories and events Discuss a wide range of topics and word meanings Use new and unusual words Ask open-ended questions Give explicit guidance in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation Encourage language play Children Explore and experiment with language Name and describe objects in the classroom Ask and answer wh- and how questions Hear good models of language use Discuss topics of interest to them

7 Grouping for Instruction
Provide many opportunities for children to interact with: Teachers and other adults Each other one-on-one, in small groups, and in the whole group Provide activity settings that incorporate a variety of grouping formats to encourage more language and literacy-related interactions.

8 Vocabulary Development
Generate interest in new words Relate new words to children’s personal experiences Help children make connections and attach meanings to new words and concepts that go beyond a label or definition

9 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Naming: Name objects related to theme Name objects by category Name objects by attributes Describing: Name object and its category Describe object’s function(s) Describe object’s attributes Compare with other objects Build vocabulary and descriptive skills. Adapted from Neuhaus Education Center, Bellaire,Texas

10 Diverse Experiences Scaffold
Adjust instruction to account for the differences in children’s knowledge and experiences. Scaffold Teacher Amount of Support Independent Introduced Learned Knowledge

11 Scaffolding Children’s Language
Model the use of extended language Use questions and prompts (or cues) Restate and expand ideas using new vocabulary and sentence patterns Request clarification and elaboration Promote questions among children Provide feedback to encourage, explain, and evaluate responses

12 Progress Monitoring Monitor oral language development by listening to individual children’s language Adapt instruction to meet individual needs

13 Remember . . .

14 Vocabulary This publication is based on the K-2 Teacher Reading Academy, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission. 1

15 Vocabulary “. . . vocabulary is the glue that holds stories, ideas, and content together making comprehension accessible for children.” —Rupley, Logan, & Nichols, 1998/1999, p. 339

16 Four-Square Vocabulary Map
Survey of Knowledge Four-Square Vocabulary Map What are some examples? Word (Picture can be added) What is it? What is it like?

17 Vocabulary Speaking Listening Writing Reading

18 What We Know from Research
Students develop vocabulary through: wide reading explicit vocabulary instruction — reading a lot — reading different types of texts — focusing on specific words and their meanings

19 Planning Vocabulary Instruction
Before reading, select specific words to teach: Preview the passage List words that you predict will be challenging for your students Prioritize these words by their importance

20 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Includes . . .
Expanding word knowledge through definitions and contexts Actively involving students Teaching independent word-learning strategies

21 Expanding Word Knowledge
Vocabulary Words Definitions (what words and word parts mean) Contexts (how words are used) Reword definitions and analyze Create sentences or stories using new vocabulary Synonyms Examples Discuss multiple meanings Antonyms Non-examples

22 Actively Involving Students Concept-of-Definition (Word) Maps
Help students make connections Concept-of-Definition (Word) Maps Semantic Mapping Graphic Organizers Content Word Walls

23 Content Word Walls Serve as a review of key concepts and spellings of content-related words and word parts (morphemes) Encourage students to use the newly-learned words in their reading, writing, and speaking across content areas

24 Activity Find the Content Word Wall Planner (Handout 5)
Work in groups of two or three Complete one of the word walls: Decide on a content area Choose a topic and create a word list Include two vocabulary-building activities

25 Engage in Lively Discussions
Discussions of words and related concepts help students: Learn meanings of words and word parts Model analysis of words from word parts Make connections between concepts and words (morphemes)

26 Word Consciousness helps students develop a deeper understanding of words promotes an understanding of how words and concepts are related across different contexts An awareness of and interest in words and their meanings . . .

27 Teaching Independent Word-Learning Strategies
how to analyze meanings of word parts in multi-syllabic words how to determine the meaning of words based on their context how to look up unknown words how to read and understand a dictionary entry how to recognize and use information about word parts to determine meaning Model and help students learn . . .

28 Stop and Think About It Materials:
“Stop and Think About It: Vocabulary Development” handout Teacher’s Edition of your reading program Directions: Select one of the stories in your Teacher’s Edition Complete the chart

29 Monitoring Students’ Progress: Vocabulary Knowledge
Students know words to varying degrees Three Levels of word knowledge: Established Acquainted Unknown

30 Remember . . . Explicit vocabulary instruction “can deepen students’ knowledge of word meanings” to help them “understand what they are hearing or reading” as well as “help them use words accurately in speaking and writing.” —National Institute for Literacy, 2001, p. 36

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