Presentation on theme: "Dr E. Lugo Morales1 * the ability to understand information presented in written form. * understanding textbook assignments. * one's interpretation of."— Presentation transcript:
Dr E. Lugo Morales1 * the ability to understand information presented in written form. * understanding textbook assignments. * one's interpretation of directions on exams, labs, and homework assignments among other reading needs.
Dr E. Lugo Morales2 Five reasons for lack of reading comprehension are listed below (the first four are from Twining, 1991). Failure to understand a word Failure to understand a sentence Failure to understand how sentences relate to one another Failure to understand how the information fits together in a meaningful way (organization) Lack of interest or concentration
Dr E. Lugo Morales3 enhance understanding of the content information presented in a text. improve understanding of the organization of information in a text. improve attention and concentration while reading. make reading a more active process. increase personal involvement in the reading material. promote critical thinking and evaluation of reading material. enhance registration and recall of text information in memory.
Dr E. Lugo Morales4 GOOD OR MATURE READERSPOOR OR IMMATURE READERS BEFORE READING Activate prior knowledge Understand task and set purpose Choose appropriate strategies Start reading without preparation Read without knowing why Read without considering how to approach the material AFTER READING Reflect on what was read Feel success is a result of effort Summarize major ideas Seek additional information from outside sources Stop reading and thinking Feel success is a result of luck Students with good versus poor reading skills demonstrate distinct cognitive behaviors before, during, and after reading an assignment. The following chart from Cook (1989) summarizes these behaviors.
Dr E. Lugo Morales5 GOOD OR MATURE READERSPOOR OR IMMATURE READERS DURING READING Focus attention Anticipate and predict Use fix-up strategies when lack of understanding occurs Use contextual analysis to understand new terms Use text structure to assist comprehension Organize and integrate new information Self-monitor comprehension by... o knowing comprehension is occurring o knowing what is being understood Are easily distracted Read to get done Do not know what to do when lack of understanding occurs Do not recognize important vocabulary Do not see any organization Add on, rather than integrate, new information Do not realize they do not understand Students with good versus poor reading skills demonstrate distinct cognitive behaviors before, during, and after reading an assignment. The following chart from Cook (1989) summarizes these behaviors.
Dr E. Lugo Morales6 Cook (1989: 69) states “The mind stimulated by key words or phrases in the text or by the context activates a knowledge schema.” This view clarifies that schemata are activated in one of two ways: 1. New information from the outside world can be cognitively received and related to already known information stored in memory through retrieval or remembering. In this case, new concepts are assimilated into existing schemata which can be altered or expanded; 2. New information can be represented by new mental structures. In this case, in absence of already existing schemata, new knowledge builds up new schemata.
Dr E. Lugo Morales7 * Essential Words * Focus on key words in the text. Emphasize verbs and nouns only. * Review and Summarize * Identify the main idea of each paragraph. Develop your own summary of the chapter and compare it to the summary presented in the book. * Make Reading More Active * Stimulate the auditory sense by reading aloud or listening to tape recordings of the text. * Take notes during or after reading difficult material. * Make Reading Interactive * Work with another student. Read to each other, and take turns summarizing sections or chapters of text. * Relate the material to personal experiences.
Dr E. Lugo Morales8 Review Questions – Evaluate understanding of the material by answering the review questions at the end of the chapter and workbooks. – Make up your own by converting the section headings into questions. Words and Definitions – Look up the definitions of all unfamiliar words. – Compile a written list of unfamiliar words and definitions. – Record the words and definitions on audio tapes and listen to them for review. pages – Place a colored paper clip on the glossary for quick access.
Dr E. Lugo Morales9 LINCS is a task- specific strategy student use to learn vocabulary. The strategy is useful in improving reading comprehension in those cases when vocabulary words are used repeatedly in the readings. LIST the parts you need to know. Identify a term you need to know. Analyze the definition of the vocabulary word. Identify the most important parts of the definition. List the key parts of the definition you need to remember on a study card. IMAGINE a picture. Create a picture in your mind of the term's meaning. Describe the image using real words. NOTE a reminding "sound-alike" word. Think of a familiar word that sounds like the new term or part of the new term. CONNECT the terms in a story. Make up a short story about the meaning of the term that uses the sound-alike word. Create an image of the story in your mind. SELF-test.