2professional family will have heard 45 million words Reported in 2004, the U.S. Dept of Education conducted alongitudinal study of the reading-aloud and oral communicationbetween parents and children (from birth to 4 years). Theparticipants represented professional, working class, and povertybackgrounds.Researchers found that “when the daily number of words for each group of children is projected across four years, the four-year-old child from the:professional family will have heard 45 million wordsworking-class child 26 millionwelfare child only 13 millionAll three children will show up for kindergarten on the same day, but one will have heard 32 million fewer words.” Trelease asserts, “If No Child Left Behind expects the teacher to get this child caught up, she’ll have to speak 10 words a second for nine hundred hours to reach the 32-million mark by year’s end”(p. 15).
3In a 1999 early childhood study conducted by the U. S. Dept In a 1999 early childhood study conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Education, “children who were read to at least three times a week had a significantly greater phonemic awareness when they entered kindergarten than did children who were read to less often, and they were almost twice as likely to score in the top 25 percent in reading” (p. 9).
4Reading Aloud to Students: Teacher reads aloud repeatedly and provides opportunities for students to be actively involved in the experience.Strengths:Students have access to books they can’t read themselvesTeacher models fluent reading and reading strategiesStudents build background knowledge and vocabularyWeaknesses:Students have no opportunity to readStudents may not be interested in the text
5Research indicates that reading aloud to children substantially improves their reading skills, as well as their written, oral, and auditory skills. In addition, children that hear read-alouds have an increased positive attitude towards reading more so than those that do not hear read alouds.
6Suggested Picture books for Read-Alouds: ♣ I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Pie by Alison Jackson♣ The Wheels on the Bus by Maryann Kovalski♣ Don’t Forget the Bacon by Pat Hutchins♣ Aunt Pitty Patty’s Piggy by Jim Aylesworth♣ Froggy Gets Dressed by Jonathan London♣ What! Cried Granny by Kate Lum♣ Teeny Tiny by Jill Bennett♣ Too Much Noise by Ann McGovern♣ Where’s My Teddy? by Jez Alborough♣ What Baby Wants by Phyllis Root♣ Gator Gumbo by C. Fleming♣ We Share Everything by Robert Munsch♣ Just A Minute by Yuyi Morales♣ Bark, George by Jules Feiffer♣ Mother, Mother, I Want Another by M.Robbins♣ Aaron’s Hair by Robert Munsch♣ Falling For Rapunzel by Leah Wilcox♣ I Lost My Bear? by Jules Feiffer♣ Millions of Cats by Wanda Gag♣ Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You♣ Piggie Pie by M. Palantini♣ Click, Clack Moo: Cow’s That Type by Doreen Cronin♣ Little Red Cowboy Hat by Susan LowellSee? by Bill Martin, Jr.♣ Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst♣ The Cake That Mack Ate by Rose Robart♣ Is Your Mama a Llama? by D. Guarino♣ The Squeaky Creaky Bed by Pat Thomson♣ Hattie and the Fox by Mem Fox♣ Knuffle Bunny by Mo Willems♣ The Mitten by Jan Brett♣ First Day Jitters by Julie Danneberg♣ The Napping House by A. Wood♣ When Papa Snores by M. Long♣ Miss Nelson is Missing by Harry Allard♣ Dog breath: the Horrible Trouble with Hally♣ The Enormous Potato by Aubrey Davis♣ Hooway for Wodney Wat by H. LesterTosis by Dav Pilkey♣ What’s the Magic Word by K. DiPucchio♣ The Little Old Lady Who Was Not Afraid of♣ Epossumondas by Coleen Sally♣ We’re Going on a Lion Hunt by David AxtellAnything by Linda Williams♣ Bear Snores On by Karma Wilson♣ Dusty Locks and the Three Bears by Susan Lowell♣ If you give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff♣ Kiss the Cow by Phyllis Root♣ The Flea’s Sneeze by Lynn Downey♣ We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by M. Rosen♣ I Went Walking by Sue Williams
9Shared ReadingTeacher reads aloud while students follow along using a big book or individual copies.Strengths:Teacher teaches concepts about printTeacher models fluent reading and reading strategiesStudents become a community of readersWeaknesses:Big books or a class set of books are neededText may not be appropriate for all students
10Shared ReadingAfter reading the text several times, teachers use it to teach phonics concepts and high-frequency words.Also used to read novels with older students when the books are too difficult for them to read independently.Example: “popcorn reading”Primary grade levels
13Choral ReadingStudents read along as a group with you or another fluent adult readerStudents must be able to see the same text as you are readingFollow along as you read from a big book or read from their own copyChoose a book that is not too long and that you think is at the independent reading level for most studentsPatterned or predictable books are common because their repetitious style invites students to join inBegin by reading the book aloud as you model fluent readingThen reread the book and invite students to join inContinue rereading (3-5 times)At this time, students will be able to read the book independently
14Tape-Assisted Reading Students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read the book on an audiotapeYou need a book at a students independent reading level and a tape recording of the book read by a fluent reader at about words per minuteNo sound effects or musicFirst reading- students should follow along with the tape, pointing to each word in her or his book as the reader reads itNext- student should try to read along with the tapeReading along wit the tape should continue until the student is able to read the book independently without the support of the tape
15Partner Reading Paired students take turns reading aloud to each other More fluent readers can be paired with less fluent readersThe stronger reader reads a paragraph or a page first, providing a model for fluent readingThen the less fluent reader reads the same text aloudThe stronger student gives help with word recognition and provides feedback and encouragement to less fluent partnerThe less fluent partner rereads the passage until he or she can read it independentlyIn another form of partner reading, child who read at the same level are paired to reread a story that they have received instruction on during a teacher-guided part of the lessonTwo readers of equal ability can practice rereading after hearing the teacher read the passage
16Readers’ Theatre Students rehearse and perform a play for peers They read from scripts that have been derived from books that are rich in dialogueStudents play characters who speak lines or a narrator who shares necessary background informationProvides readers with a legitimate reason to reread text and to practice fluencyPromotes interaction with peers and makes the reading task appealing
17Scientific Research on Fluency Instruction Suggests… Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievementStudents read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached, four rereadings for most students is sufficientOral reading practice is increased through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other meansNRP