Reported in 2004, the U.S. Dept of Education conducted a longitudinal study of the reading-aloud and oral communication between parents and children (from birth to 4 years). The participants represented professional, working class, and poverty backgrounds. Researchers found that “when the daily number of words for each group of children is projected across four years, the four-year-old child from the: professional family will have heard 45 million words working-class child 26 million welfare child only 13 million All three children will show up for kindergarten on the same day, but one will have heard 32 million fewer words.” Trelease asserts, “If No Child Left Behind expects the teacher to get this child caught up, she’ll have to speak 10 words a second for nine hundred hours to reach the 32-million mark by year’s end”(p. 15).
In a 1999 early childhood study conducted by the U.S. Dept. of Education, “children who were read to at least three times a week had a significantly greater phonemic awareness when they entered kindergarten than did children who were read to less often, and they were almost twice as likely to score in the top 25 percent in reading” (p. 9).
Reading Aloud to Students: Teacher reads aloud repeatedly and provides opportunities for students to be actively involved in the experience. Strengths: Students have access to books they can’t read themselves Teacher models fluent reading and reading strategies Students build background knowledge and vocabulary Weaknesses: Students have no opportunity to read Students may not be interested in the text
Research indicates that reading aloud to children substantially improves their reading skills, as well as their written, oral, and auditory skills. In addition, children that hear read-alouds have an increased positive attitude towards reading more so than those that do not hear read alouds.
♣ I Know an Old Lady Who Swallowed a Pie by Alison Jackson ♣ Aunt Pitty Patty’s Piggy by Jim Aylesworth ♣ Too Much Noise by Ann McGovern ♣ Gator Gumbo by C. Fleming ♣ Just A Minute by Yuyi Morales ♣ Mother, Mother, I Want Another by M.Robbins ♣ Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? by Bill Martin, Jr. ♣ The Cake That Mack Ate by Rose Robart ♣ The Squeaky Creaky Bed by Pat Thomson ♣ The Napping House by A. Wood ♣ Dog breath: the Horrible Trouble with Hally Tosis by Dav Pilkey ♣ The Little Old Lady Who Was Not Afraid of Anything by Linda Williams ♣ Bear Snores On by Karma Wilson ♣ If you give a Mouse a Cookie by Laura Numeroff ♣ The Flea’s Sneeze by Lynn Downey ♣ I Went Walking by Sue Williams ♣ The Wheels on the Bus by Maryann Kovalski ♣ Froggy Gets Dressed by Jonathan London ♣ Where’s My Teddy? by Jez Alborough ♣ Bark, George by Jules Feiffer ♣ Aaron’s Hair by Robert Munsch ♣ I Lost My Bear? by Jules Feiffer ♣ Piggie Pie by M. Palantini ♣ Little Red Cowboy Hat by Susan Lowell ♣ Is Your Mama a Llama? by D. Guarino ♣ Hattie and the Fox by Mem Fox ♣ The Mitten by Jan Brett ♣ When Papa Snores by M. Long ♣ The Enormous Potato by Aubrey Davis ♣ What’s the Magic Word by K. DiPucchio ♣ We’re Going on a Lion Hunt by David Axtell ♣ Dusty Locks and the Three Bears by Susan Lowell ♣ Kiss the Cow by Phyllis Root ♣ We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by M. Rosen ♣ Don’t Forget the Bacon by Pat Hutchins ♣ What! Cried Granny by Kate Lum ♣ Teeny Tiny by Jill Bennett ♣ What Baby Wants by Phyllis Root ♣ We Share Everything by Robert Munsch ♣ Falling For Rapunzel by Leah Wilcox ♣ Millions of Cats by Wanda Gag ♣ Click, Clack Moo: Cow’s That Type by Doreen Cronin ♣ Alexander and the Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day by Judith Viorst ♣ Knuffle Bunny by Mo Willems ♣ First Day Jitters by Julie Danneberg ♣ Miss Nelson is Missing by Harry Allard ♣ Hooway for Wodney Wat by H. Lester ♣ Epossumondas by Coleen Sally Suggested Picture books for Read-Alouds:
Shared Reading Research Based Theory Choral Reading Tape- Assisted Reading Partner Reading Readers’ Theater
Shared Reading Teacher reads aloud while students follow along using a big book or individual copies. Strengths: Teacher teaches concepts about print Teacher models fluent reading and reading strategies Students become a community of readers Weaknesses: Big books or a class set of books are needed Text may not be appropriate for all students
Shared Reading After reading the text several times, teachers use it to teach phonics concepts and high-frequency words. Also used to read novels with older students when the books are too difficult for them to read independently. Example: “popcorn reading” Primary grade levels
What Shared Reading LooksLike…What Shared Reading LooksLike…
Choral Reading Students read along as a group with you or another fluent adult reader Students must be able to see the same text as you are reading Follow along as you read from a big book or read from their own copy Choose a book that is not too long and that you think is at the independent reading level for most students Patterned or predictable books are common because their repetitious style invites students to join in Begin by reading the book aloud as you model fluent reading Then reread the book and invite students to join in Continue rereading (3-5 times) At this time, students will be able to read the book independently
Tape-Assisted Reading Students read along in their books as they hear a fluent reader read the book on an audiotape You need a book at a students independent reading level and a tape recording of the book read by a fluent reader at about words per minute No sound effects or music First reading- students should follow along with the tape, pointing to each word in her or his book as the reader reads it Next- student should try to read along with the tape Reading along wit the tape should continue until the student is able to read the book independently without the support of the tape
Partner Reading Paired students take turns reading aloud to each other More fluent readers can be paired with less fluent readers The stronger reader reads a paragraph or a page first, providing a model for fluent reading Then the less fluent reader reads the same text aloud The stronger student gives help with word recognition and provides feedback and encouragement to less fluent partner The less fluent partner rereads the passage until he or she can read it independently In another form of partner reading, child who read at the same level are paired to reread a story that they have received instruction on during a teacher-guided part of the lesson Two readers of equal ability can practice rereading after hearing the teacher read the passage
Readers’ Theatre Students rehearse and perform a play for peers They read from scripts that have been derived from books that are rich in dialogue Students play characters who speak lines or a narrator who shares necessary background information Provides readers with a legitimate reason to reread text and to practice fluency Promotes interaction with peers and makes the reading task appealing
Scientific Research on Fluency Instruction Suggests… Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement Students read and reread a text a certain number of times or until a certain level of fluency is reached, four rereadings for most students is sufficient Oral reading practice is increased through the use of audiotapes, tutors, peer guidance, or other means NRP