Presentation on theme: "Southwest Asia, Central Asia, North Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Southwest Asia, Central Asia, North Africa Chapter 17Southwest Asia,Central Asia,North Africa
2Chapter 17: 1 ObjectivesIdentify which land and water features dominate the region.Discuss how the region’s major rivers are important to its people.Explain why much of the world is economically dependent on the region.
3Drawing from Experience Have you ever put together a jigsaw puzzle?Imagine a region in which the seas and land resembles pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.This section focuses on the natural features and resources of North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia.
11IntroductionPeople, goods, and ideas have come together for centuries in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia.The region’s location near the Mediterranean Sea draws travelers from all directions.This region is where the continents of Europe, Africa and Asia meet.The region’s landscape is varied and rich in natural resources.
13Why do people, goods and ideas come together in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia? Answer: the region’s location near the Mediterranean Sea andthis is where the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa meet.
14Seas and Peninsulasa. the Mediterranean Sea lies between Africa and Europe.b. the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden separate Southwest Asia’s Arabian Peninsula from Africac. the Persian Gulf borders the Arabian Peninsula on the east and the Arabian Sea borders it on the south.
15d. the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba border the Sinai Peninsula. e. the Black, Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Seas border the peninsula of Anatolia (Turkey).
16Three Landlocked bodies of saltwater lie east of the Mediterranean Sea a. the Dead Sea – saltiest body of water in the world.forms part of the Israel-Jordan border.b. the Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water on earthc. the Aral Sea in Central Asia, used to be the 4th largest inland sea but it’s shrinking.
17Question What land and water features make up much of this region? Answer: seas; Mediterranean, Red, Black, Arabian, Caspian and Aralgulfs; Aden, Persian, Suez, Aqabapeninsulas; Arabian, Sinai, Anatolia
18Rivers the Nile River – in Egypt (Misr), longest in the world. fertile soilriver was the site of one of the world’s earliest civilization,90% of Egyptians live on the river.Aswan Dam 7 others now control flooding of the Nile.
19The dams have reduced flooding and deposits of alluvial soil. This rich soil is made up of sand and mud deposited by moving water.
24Nile DeltaA delta is where a river and a larger body of water, in this case the Mediterranean Sea, meet and push at each other,in other words an estuary, where freshwater (Nile) meets saltwater (Mediterranean);it pushes the river and makes it fan out like the fingers of a hand…in the shape of a triangle or the Greek letter “delta” -- .
29Dam the Nile – Why? pros: dams make lakes and thus store more water, can irrigatefeed more peoplestop destructive floodingcons: flooding makes the soil more fertile,slower water causes more diseasesoil is less fertile and now must add chemicals to restore rich soil.
38The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers located mostly in Iraqriver valley is a fertile farming valleythe birthplace of Mesopotamia, an early civilizationMesopotamia means “land between two rivers”both rivers have been damed.
48Plains, Plateaus, Mountains A. Atlas Mountains – Africa’s longest mountain range, Morocco and Algeria in North Africa.Enough rain falls on the northern side to allow farming and settlement.B. Hejaz and Asir mountains – Asir gets the most rain – east gets little rain because of the rain shadow effect.
49C. Pontic and Taurus Mountains in Turkey. D. Caucasus Mountains – between the Black and the Caspian Seas.E. Turan Lowlands – irrigated farmlands close to China.kums are deserts:Kara Kum (Garagum) – TurkmenistanKyzl Kum (Qizilqum) – Uzbekistan.
50EarthquakesThree tectonic plates come together in North Africa, Southwest and Central Asia.Movement of these plates has built mountains, moved landmasses and caused frequent earthquakes in the region.is causing the Red Sea to grow wider.In 1999 a violent earthquake killed 20K.
51ResourcesPetroleum and natural gas are the region’s most abundant and important.70% of the earth’s known oil reserves are here and30 % of all natural gas are in this region.Other minerals: sulfate, sulfur, phosphate, chromium, gold, lead, manganese, zinc, iron and copper.
52sulfates – Turkmenistan has the world’s largest deposits. phosphates – a chemical compound used in fertilizers.
53Sec. 1 – Key PointsNorth Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia are located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe.The region is a jigsaw puzzle of peninsulas and seas.The movement of tectonic plates forms mountains, moves landforms and causes earthquakes in the region.
54Rivers feed the inland seas and supply irrigation to parched lands. Their alluvial soil deposits enrich the land, especially in the Nile River Valley and delta.The region contains much of the world’s oil and natural gas reserves.
58Drawing from Experience When you think of a desert, what comes to mind?What is the climate like?What kinds of animals live there?What would it be like to live in a region in which half the land was desert?In the last section, you read about the natural features and resources of North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia.This section focuses on climate & vegetation of the region.
59IntroductionAncient cave paintings tell us the North Africa was once wet and green.Differences in climate across the region affect vegetation and human activities.
60Water: A Precious Resource Rainfall is plentiful in some areas of the region.In most, however, water is scarce because evaporation exceeds rainfall.Two dry climates cover most of the region.
61A. A Desert Climate 50% of the region is desert less than 10 inches of rain per yearThe Sahara is the largest desert in the world.Covers most of North Africa,The Rub’al Khali (Empty Quarter) desert covers 1/4th (quarter) of the Arabian Peninsula.
62Nomadic peoples raise herds of sheep, goats and camels in the Garayum desert of Central Asia. Oasis = a place in the desert where underground water comes to the surface.Villages, towns or small-scale farms can exist in some oases (plural).
75B. Steppe Climate 2nd largest climate in the region. annual rainfall: 10 to 20 inchesenough to grow short grasses, shrubs and a few treessupports pastoralism – the raising and grazing of livestock.
76Climatic VariationsThere are two climates in the region with more rainfall than the desert and steppe climates.A. Mediterranean andB. Highland
77A. Mediterranean Climate has cool rainy winters and hot, dry summersfound in the Tigris-Euphrates valley, in upland areas and the coastal plains of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas.Farmers can grow citrus fruits, olives and grapes.Tourists enjoy this climate.
78B. Highlands found in higher areas of the region in the Caucasus Mountains.highland climate varies with elevation, wind and sungenerally is wetter and colder than other climates in the region.
79OthersCoastal and highlands areas near mountain ranges receive the most rainfallNorth African coast can get 30” of rain, enough to grow forests.Georgia can get more than 100 inches of rain.Areas that get more than 14” of rain a year can grow cereals – food grains such as barley, oats and wheat.
80Section 2: Key PointsRainfall in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia varies widely.Most of the region contains arid areas.The four (4) climate regions in North Africa, Southwest Asia and Central Asia are: desert, steppe, Mediterranean and highlands.Natural vegetation in the region varies widely and is closely related to rainfall and irrigation patterns.