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The Middle East Crossroads of the World. What is the Middle East? Crossroads of 3 continents: Europe Asia Africa Extends from Morocco to Iran Region in.

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Presentation on theme: "The Middle East Crossroads of the World. What is the Middle East? Crossroads of 3 continents: Europe Asia Africa Extends from Morocco to Iran Region in."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Middle East Crossroads of the World

2 What is the Middle East? Crossroads of 3 continents: Europe Asia Africa Extends from Morocco to Iran Region in Southwest Asia

3 What is the Middle East? Its people share common traits: language history religion Access to many major waterways The Tigris River

4 Climate Short period of rainfall Rains wash away topsoil Temperature extremes Hot and dry Deserts and green coastal lands

5 Natural Resources Oil is the Middle East’s most important natural resource 70% of the world’s known oil reserves are located in the Middle East Middle Eastern countries produce 2/3 of the world’s oil

6 Natural Resources Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest oil producer

7 Natural Resources Other natural resources include: gold, iron, and copper Water is scarce and difficult to harness Fertile river valleys and coastal lands Aswan High Dam in Egypt

8 Geographic Features Desert – an area that has less than 10 inches of annual rainfall Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Oasis – fertile place in a desert where water is available through an underground spring

9 Five Physical Regions 1)Northern Tier 2)Arabian Peninsula 3)Fertile Crescent 4)Nile River Valley 5)Maghreb Beach in Lebanon

10 1. The Northern Tier Anatolian Peninsula * fertile soil and moisture available for farming to support a large population Iranian Plateau * Elburz and Zagros Mountain ranges * dry region with a small population Stretches across present-day Turkey and Iran A bazaar in Turkey

11 2. Arabian Peninsula A plateau that borders the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and the Persian Gulf Mostly barren desert Beneath the desert is a huge amount of oil, which supports the country Small population because of lack of water Most of the population lives around the oases

12 2. Arabian Peninsula Birthplace of Islam

13 3. Fertile Crescent Arc-shaped region that stretches from the eastern Mediterranean along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf Rich soil and abundant water have led to a large population

14 3. Fertile Crescent

15 Mesopotamia “land between two rivers” Part of the Fertile Crescent Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Located in modern-day Iraq Land is very fertile Some of the earliest civilizations began here Ancient Babylon

16 4. Nile River Valley Located in northeastern Africa Nile River supports the population of this region

17 5. Maghreb North African nations of Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco Lies west of the Arabian Peninsula Isolated land surrounded by water, mountains, and deserts

18 5. Maghreb Sahara Desert and Atlas Mountains Few people live here because of scarcity of water Major crossroad of the southern rim of Mediterranean Gateway to the Atlantic Ocean Mosque in Morocco

19 Review Questions 1) The Middle East is at the crossroads of which 3 continents? 2) Describe the climate of the Middle East. 3) What country produces the most oil? 4) Define oasis. 5) Which 2 rivers make up the region called Mesopotamia?


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