10Mount Toubkal is the highest peak in Morocco April
11The Sahara Desert The largest hot desert in the world Sahara means “desert” in ArabicTemperatures can rise as high as degrees F in the summerTemperatures can also fall below freezing at night in the winterOnly 20% is sand, the rest is made up of mountains, rock formations, and gravelly plains
14Travel in the Sahara is risky because of the extreme conditions Travel in the Sahara is risky because of the extreme conditions. Many travelers rely on camels because camels can go for up to 17 days without water. Also, wind-blown sand has little effect on a camel because it closes its nostrils and just keeps walking.
15As much as 6,000 feet under the Sahara are huge stores of underground water called aquifers. In some areas, this water has come to the surface, which is called an oasis. It supports vegetation and wildlife and is critical for people living in the desert.
17Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Two of the most important rivers in the Middle EastSupported several ancient river valley civilizations in a larger area known as the Fertile CrescentFlow through parts of Turkey, Syria, and IraqThe valleys are fertile, well watered, and great for agricultureFlow almost parallel to each other for hundreds of milesJoin at the Shatt al Arab and then flow into the Persian Gulf
27Mountains in the Middle East Mountains divide the land and countriesThe Hindu Kush Mountains of Afghanistan are linked with other mountain ranges that frame South AsiaThe Zagros Mountains on the western side of Iran isolate the country from the rest of the Middle EastThe Elburz Mountains cut off easy access to the Caspian Sea for IranThe Taurus Mountains separate Turkey from the rest of the Middle EastHowever, goods, people, and ideas have still been able to spread because of water
30Climate of North Africa and the Middle East Majority of North Africa has a desert climateAround the Atlas Mountains, the climate is Semiarid and on the coast of the Mediterranean, the climate is MediterraneanRainfall in North Africa is mainly in the winterMajority of the Middle East is extremely aridThe Arabian Peninsula consists of the Rub-al- Khali, which is the most famous desert in the region, so that area has a desert climate