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Physical Geography of North Africa and the Middle East

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Geography of North Africa and the Middle East"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Geography of North Africa and the Middle East

2 North Africa Physical Geography

3 The Nile River The longest river in the world
Flows more than 4,000 miles More than 95% of Egyptians depend on the Nile for their water 3,320 people per square mile Provides irrigation for the region




7 Atlas Mountains Northwestern Africa Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Separates the Mediterranean Basin from the Sahara Desert which forms a boundary and almost prevents communication between the two regions



10 Mount Toubkal is the highest peak in Morocco April

11 The Sahara Desert The largest hot desert in the world
Sahara means “desert” in Arabic Temperatures can rise as high as degrees F in the summer Temperatures can also fall below freezing at night in the winter Only 20% is sand, the rest is made up of mountains, rock formations, and gravelly plains



14 Travel in the Sahara is risky because of the extreme conditions
Travel in the Sahara is risky because of the extreme conditions. Many travelers rely on camels because camels can go for up to 17 days without water. Also, wind-blown sand has little effect on a camel because it closes its nostrils and just keeps walking.

15 As much as 6,000 feet under the Sahara are huge stores of underground water called aquifers. In some areas, this water has come to the surface, which is called an oasis. It supports vegetation and wildlife and is critical for people living in the desert.

16 Middle East Physical Geography

17 Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Two of the most important rivers in the Middle East Supported several ancient river valley civilizations in a larger area known as the Fertile Crescent Flow through parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq The valleys are fertile, well watered, and great for agriculture Flow almost parallel to each other for hundreds of miles Join at the Shatt al Arab and then flow into the Persian Gulf


19 Jordan River Provides water to the region
Flows from the mountains in Lebanon into the Dead Sea Natural boundary between Israel and Jordan


21 The Dead Sea A landlocked salt lake
The Dead Sea is so salty that only bacteria can live in the water 1,349 feet below sea level – lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth


23 The Red Sea Separates the Arabian Peninsula and the continent of Africa Covers a rift valley created by the movement of the Arabian plate


25 The Suez Canal Connects the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
Goods from Asia flow through this canal to ports in Europe and North Africa


27 Mountains in the Middle East
Mountains divide the land and countries The Hindu Kush Mountains of Afghanistan are linked with other mountain ranges that frame South Asia The Zagros Mountains on the western side of Iran isolate the country from the rest of the Middle East The Elburz Mountains cut off easy access to the Caspian Sea for Iran The Taurus Mountains separate Turkey from the rest of the Middle East However, goods, people, and ideas have still been able to spread because of water



30 Climate of North Africa and the Middle East
Majority of North Africa has a desert climate Around the Atlas Mountains, the climate is Semiarid and on the coast of the Mediterranean, the climate is Mediterranean Rainfall in North Africa is mainly in the winter Majority of the Middle East is extremely arid The Arabian Peninsula consists of the Rub-al- Khali, which is the most famous desert in the region, so that area has a desert climate


32 Answer the following question on a separate sheet of paper
What are the physical features and the climates of the North Africa/Middle East and how have they impacted development?

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