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HISTORY ALIVE CHAPTER 12 The Struggle to Preserve Judaism.

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1 HISTORY ALIVE CHAPTER 12 The Struggle to Preserve Judaism

2 Introduction Discover how Judaism was preserved even after the Hebrews lost their homeland.

3 Introduction It was a struggle to preserve Judaism

4 Monotheism “the belief that there is only one God” Judaism is the world’s oldest monotheistic religion. Personal relationship with God. God is all powerful, all knowing, and sets the standards to live by. The Central Beliefs and Teachings of Judaism

5 Following God’s Law Central to Jewish life The Torah has the laws and commandments Ten Commandments Rules about what to eat Religious practices and holidays The Central Beliefs and Teachings of Judaism

6 Equality and Social Justice Starting with the Ten Commandments always concerned with equality and social justice. Did not view leaders as Gods. Only one God, need to help others. The Central Beliefs of Judaism

7 Equality and Social Justice ‘You shall open wide your hand to your brother, to the needy and to the poor.’ Caring for the less fortunate people in society is a basic value in Judaism.

8 The Importance of Study Study of the Torah is important. People also study the Talmud. There is a reverence of study and learning. The Central Beliefs and Teachings of Judaism

9 The Talmud The Collection of ancient Jewish writings that interpret the law of the Torah.

10 Foreign Domination and the Jewish Diaspora Fall of Judah in 597 B.C.E. The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in 586 B.C.E. Threatened Jewish Beliefs. Thousands of Hebrews entered Babylon. The Jewish Diaspora had begun.

11 The Jewish Diaspora The scattering of the Jewish people to many lands.

12 Rule by the Babylonians Hebrew captives lived in Babylonia for fifty years. Hebrew captives were called Judaeans. The name was shortened to Jews. In 539 B.C.E. the Babylonians were conquered by the Persians.

13 Rule by the Persians In 539 B.C.E. the Babylonians were conquered by the Persian. Cyrus the Great released the Jewish people from captivity. Some went to Judah. Some stayed in Babylon.

14 Rule by the Greeks The Greek rulers tried to force Jewish people to worship idols of Greek Gods in temples. In 168 B.C.E. the Jewish people rebelled and started a war. Hanukkah is celebrated to honor this victory.

15 Rule by the Romans In 63 B.C.E. the Jews living in Judah were conquered by the Romans. Romans executed more than 50,000 Jewish people. Jewish people could continue to practice their religion.

16 Rule by the Romans In 22 B.C.E., King Herod wanted to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. The Temple took 46 years to complete.

17 Rule by the Romans In 66 C.E. the Jewish people fought off the Romans and managed to keep them out of Jerusalem for four years.

18 Rule by the Romans Titus who was Roman, led 60,000 soldiers to fight the Jewish people. The Jewish people were outnumbered and Jerusalem was destroyed again.

19 Rule by the Romans The Jewish people were forbidden from entering Jerusalem. Thousand of Jewish people left their homeland and their holy city

20 Preserving and Passing on the Teachings of Judaism After losing their temple and their homeland, the Jewish people were fighting to survive along with preserving their religion.

21 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai A rabbi helped to preserve Judaism named Yahanan ben Zaccai. In 66 C.E. the Jewish people were fighting against the Romans. He worried the Rabbis would be killed and the Temple would be destroyed and Judaism would be lost.

22 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai Ben Zaccai begged the Jewish people to surrender to the Romans in order to save Judaism. The Jewish people refused.

23 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai Ben Zaccai faked his own death and was smuggled out of Jerusalem in a coffin.

24 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai He met Vespasian a Roman General and pleaded to start a Jewish school in Yavneh. Together with other rabbis he was allowed to start a school.

25 Rabbi Yohanan ben Zaccai Jerusalem fell and Yavneh became the center of Jewish life.

26 New Teachers and Practices The rabbis at Yavneh introduced new practices to ensure that the teachings of Judaism would be passed on. Initially only rabbis could read from the Torah. The rabbis decided that any adult male could read from the Torah.

27 New Teachers and Practices The synagogue became more important to Jewish life. A synagogue is a house of worship. It is also a place to study, hold meetings, and social gatherings. A synagogue could be built whenever ten men were present.

28 New Teachers and Practices New practices helped preserve the religion in the community.

29 Israel In 1948, a new Jewish state, Israel was created in part of the lands once ruled by David and Solomon.

30 The End


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