Presentation on theme: "Judaism Lesson 1- The Early Hebrews. The Early Hebrews The Big Idea Originally desert nomads, the Hebrews established a great kingdom called Israel. Main."— Presentation transcript:
Judaism Lesson 1- The Early Hebrews
The Early Hebrews The Big Idea Originally desert nomads, the Hebrews established a great kingdom called Israel. Main Ideas Abraham and Moses led the Hebrews to Canaan and to a new religion. Strong kings united the Israelites to fight off invaders. Invaders conquered and ruled the Hebrews after their kingdom broke apart. Some women in Hebrew society made great contributions to their history.
Main Idea 1: Abraham and Moses led the Hebrews to Canaan and to a new religion. Accounts of the Hebrews describe the Hebrews’ early history and the laws of Judaism, the Hebrew religion. The Hebrew Bible traces the Hebrews back to Abraham, who was told by God to settle in Mesopotamia. After a famine struck Canaan, the Hebrews ended up in Egypt and lived well, causing the pharaoh concern.
Possible Routes of Abraham and Moses
The pharaoh of Egypt made the Hebrews slaves to stop them from taking over Egypt. A leader named Moses demanded that the pharaoh free his people. He refused, and plagues occurred, frightening the pharaoh. His people were released, so they began their Exodus out of Egypt. God then gave Moses the Ten Commandments by which to live. The Exodus They included worshipping only God and valuing human life. The Hebrews reached Canaan and settled there in small communities, as the Israelites.
Main Idea 2: Strong kings united the Israelites to fight off invaders. The new threat to the Israelites came from the Philistines. The Israelites united under Saul, who became the first king of Israel. The Israelites wanted a single ruler who could lead them in battle. David became king after Saul. He won many wars. Solomon became king next, and expanded the kingdom and trade. He made allies with nearby kingdoms, including Egypt and Phoenicia. Trade with them made Israel very rich. With the riches that came from this, he built a temple to God in Jerusalem.
Main Idea 3: Invaders conquered and ruled the Hebrews after their kingdom broke apart. After Solomon’s death, revolts broke out over who should be king. This split Israel into two kingdoms, called Israel and Judah. The people of Judah became known as the Jews. Both were conquered, and Judah fell to the Chaldeans.
Scattering and Conquest- Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, c. 920 BC The Jews went through a period of enslavement called the Babylonian Captivity. The Persians took over and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Some did not return, however, and settled in other parts of the Persian Empire. Scholars call the scattering of the Jews outside Canaan the Diaspora.
Scattering and Conquest The Jews were conquered by the Romans, but made many advances in teaching and building temples. Yohanan ben Zaccai was a teacher during this time who clarified some Jewish teachings to help people better understand the religion. He also built a school to teach about Judaism. Despite these advances, the Jews were not happy, and called on people to rebel.
Main Idea 4: Some women in Hebrew society made great contributions to their history. Hebrew society was governed by men. Women had few rights. They had to obey their fathers and husbands. They couldn’t choose their own husbands. A woman could not inherit property unless she had no brothers. Some of them, however, such as Queen Esther, the judge Deborah, and Miriam (the sister of Moses) made great contributions to society. Some women, such as Ruth and Naomi, were seen as examples of how women should behave. Ruth was devoted to her mother-in-law.