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The Growth of Judaism Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section focuses on the growth of Judaism, including the challenges it overcame and the setbacks.

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Presentation on theme: "The Growth of Judaism Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section focuses on the growth of Judaism, including the challenges it overcame and the setbacks."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Growth of Judaism Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section focuses on the growth of Judaism, including the challenges it overcame and the setbacks it suffered.

2 Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas The Growth of Judaism The Jews continued their religion during their exile in Babylon. Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek world and regained control of Judah. Religion shaped the Jewish way of life. Under Roman rule, the Jews were divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews.

3 Exile and Return Exile occurs when people are forced to leave their homeland. During the Israelites’ exile in Babylon, their religion became what we call Judaism. Jews met each week on the Sabbath, a day of worship and rest, in a synagogue, or house of worship. (pages 94–95) The Growth of Judaism

4 Exile and Return (cont.) After the Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took control of Babylon, the Persian king, Cyrus, allowed the Jews to return to Judah. Persian officials still controlled the Jews in Judah, so Jews looked to their religious leaders to run society. The Growth of Judaism (pages 94–95)

5 Exile and Return (cont.) The Hebrew Bible consists of the Torah, the Prophets, and 34 other books. Some of these books describe Jewish history. The Growth of Judaism (pages 94–95)

6 Exile and Return (cont.) The book of Genesis tells how God punished people for their bad behavior. The Growth of Judaism The story of Noah is in the book of Genesis. Genesis also explains why the world has different languages. The book of Daniel reminds Jews that God will rescue them. Jews, Christians, and Muslims share the idea that good will triumph over evil. (pages 94–95)

7 The Jews and the Greeks He introduced the Greek language and ways to the Jews who stayed in Judah. Judah came under the control of Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. (pages 95–96) The Diaspora refers to Jews who lived outside of Judah. The word diaspora means “scattered.” The Growth of Judaism

8 The Jews and the Greeks (cont.) A priest named Judas Maccabeus and his followers formed an army known as the Maccabees to fight the Greeks. The Greek ruler Antiochus wanted the Jews to worship Greek gods and goddesses. The Maccabees drove the Greeks out of Judah. They removed evidence of the gods and goddesses from their temple. The Growth of Judaism (pages 95–96)

9 The Jews and the Greeks (cont.) Each year Jews recall the cleansing of the temple when they celebrate Hanukkah. The Growth of Judaism (pages 95–96)

10 The Jewish Way of Life Sons were valuable in Jewish society. Jewish laws influenced Jews’ education, food, and clothes. (pages 97–98) Sons carried on the family name and became the head of the family after the death of their fathers. Sons learned how to earn a living and how to worship God from their fathers. The Growth of Judaism

11 The Jewish Way of Life (cont.) Girls learned how to be good wives, mothers, and housekeepers. They later learned how to read the Torah from religious leaders. They also learned about Jewish laws and strong women of ancient Israel. Jewish laws stated that Jews could eat only certain animals, such as beef, lamb, and certain scaly fish. The Growth of Judaism (pages 97–98)

12 The Jewish Way of Life (cont.) Jewish laws also applied to clothing. Today, food that is prepared according to Jewish law is called kosher. Men wore tunics, caps or turbans, and sandals. Women wore dresses and covered their heads with shawls. The Growth of Judaism Wealthy women wore shoes, makeup, and jewelry. (pages 97–98)

13 After Herod’s death, the Romans replaced Jewish kings with Roman officials. King Herod, the most famous ruler of Judaea, was known for the additions he made to the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. (pages 100–102) The Jews and the Romans In 63 B.C., the Romans conquered Judah and renamed it Judaea. The Jews were divided over how to deal with the Romans. The Growth of Judaism

14 A third group was the Essenes. They lived in the desert and waited for God to deliver the Jews from the Romans. Another group was the Sadducees, who emphasized the written law and did not agree with many of the Pharisees’ teachings. The Jews and the Romans (cont.) One group was the Pharisees, who stressed oral traditions and were supported by the common people. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)

15 Some Jews, known as the Zealots, wanted to fight the Romans. The Jews hated Roman rule. The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Dead Sea Scrolls were found near the Dead Sea in A.D They describe Judaism during Roman times. They revolted in A.D. 66 and drove the Romans out of Jerusalem. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)

16 The Romans also destroyed the temple in Jerusalem. They killed thousands of Jews and forced many others to leave. The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Romans regained control four years later. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)

17 The Jews and the Romans (cont.) What remains today is the Western Wall. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)

18 Rabbis, teachers of the Torah, became important leaders. This time, they forbade Jews to visit Jerusalem and gave Judah the name of Palestine, referring to the Philistines. The Jews and the Romans (cont.) The Jews revolted again, but the Romans stopped the revolt. Rabbis wanted to pass on the teachings of the Torah. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)

19 In A.D Palestine was divided, and a new Jewish nation called Israel was created in For 2,000 years most Jews lived outside Palestine and faced persecution. The Jews and the Romans (cont.) They combined the teachings into books called commentaries. The Talmud is an important commentary dealing with many laws about daily life. The Growth of Judaism (pages 100–102)


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