2Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Chapter 5:1
3VocabularyMycenaean: Indo-Europeans who settled in the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.Trojan War: 10 year war between Mycenaean and City-State of Troy.Epic: Narrative poems that celebrate heroic deeds
4Geography Shapes Life Mountainous Peninsula Water Skilled Sailors 2,000 islandsWaterAegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Ionian SeaWater served as Transportation SystemLinked City States togetherSkilled SailorsGreece lacks Natural Resources!!!Must trade for Timber, metals and farmland/food!
5Greece: The Land and Climate ¾ of Greece is Rugged, Rocky MountainsMountains divided Greece up into specific regionsDeveloped small individual communities/governmentsLittle fertile land and water (Small Population)Varied Climate:48 Degrees in the Winter80 degrees in the SummerActive lifestyleSports/Olympics
6Mycenaean Civilization Develops MycenaeansIndo-Europeans from the Eurasian SteppesLeading City: MycenaeContact with the MinoansAdopted the Minoan Writing system, Art,
7The Trojan War Mycenaean’s 10 year battle against Troy Troy: An Independent trading city located in AnatoliaGreek army attacked because Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen “the beautiful wife of a Greek King”English Class!!The Trojan War: Video
8Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Dorians took over the Mycenaeansweakened from battlesLack historyNo WritingsHomer: Blind Story Teller, Narrative Poems,The IliadAchillesHector of TroyGreek MythsLove, hate, jealousy
9Greek Gods Zeus Hera Athena Hades Name some other Gods? Ruler of the Gods (Lived on Mount OlympusHeraZeus’s Wife, Jealous all the timeAthenaGoddess of Wisdom: Zeus’s daughter and favorite childHadesRuler of the UnderworldName some other Gods?
10Main Idea Questions: PG 126 What impact did nearness to the sea have on the development of Greece?What aspects of culture did the Mycenaean's adopt from the Minoans?Why were the epics of importance to the Greeks of the Dorian period?
11The Warring States Chapter 5:2 Classical GreeceThe Warring StatesChapter 5:2
12Vocabulary Polis: City state Acropolis: Fortified hilltop, gathering for politicsAristocracy: Government ruled by small group of noble landowning families (rich families)Democracy: Rule by the people (direct democracy)Helot: Peasants force to stay on the land they workedPhalanx: Military formation (shield to shield)Persian Wars: Wars between Greece and the Persian Empire
13Rule and Order in Greek City-States PolisCity State “Fundamental political unit in ancient Greece”Fewer than 10,000 PeopleAcropolis: Fortified hilltop, downtown area, trade area, meeting area for politicsGreek Political Styles:Monarchy: Single person, KingAristocracy: Government ruled by a small group of noble landowning familiesOligarchy: Government ruled by a few powerful people
14Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Idea of Representative GovernmentDemocracyRule by the People.In Athens, citizens participated directly in political decision making.DracoDeveloped Legal CodeNo Citizen should own another citizenOnly free adult male property owners born in Athens were considered citizens.Women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded from citizenship and had few rights
15Athenian Education Wealthy families sent children to schools Boys Reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, music, gymBoysMilitary SchoolsGirlsEducated at home by mothers, Child-rearing, home skills.
17This is….SPARTASpartaLocated Southern part of GreeceMilitary State
18Sparta Builds a Military State Spartan Daily LifeSparta Government and SocietyMost Powerful Military in GreeceNo IndividualismValuedStrength, duty, disciplineServed in Military till 60Men 7-30 years“Come back with your shield or on it!”Branches:AssemblyIncluded everyoneThe Council of Elders (5)
22Persian WarsThe Persian Wars: Battles between Greece and the Persian EmpireIonian Greeks were invaded by PersiansBattle of Marathon25,000 Persians10,000 Athenians (Phalanxes)6,000 Persians vs. 200 Greeks died
23Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Thermopylae (The Real 300) 300 Spartans 7,000 Greeks vs. Xerxes ArmyGreeks stopped the Persian Advance for 3 daysTraitor informed the Persians of the “Secret Pass”300 Spartans stayed the rest fledXerxes’s Army/Navy defeated in Aegean SeaDelian League (City States/ Greek Alliance)
24Consequences of the Persian War Athens became the leader of the Delian LeagueMoved the Delian League capital to AthensGolden Age of AthensAthens became the Center Piece for the Greek Civilization
25Main Ideas How does an aristocracy differ from an oligarchy What contributions did Solon and Cleisthenes make to development of Athenian democracyHow did Athens benefit from victory in the Persian War
26Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Chapter 5:3Roots of Ancient Greece
27VocabularyDirect Democracy: A form of government in which citizens rule directly not through representativesPeloponnesian War: War between Athens and Sparta. Athens had a stronger Navy and Sparta had a stronger Army. Sparta wins.Classical Art: Art that shows ideal beauty. (Harmony, order, balance, proportion)Philosophers: Means “Lover of Wisdom” (Education)Socrates: Father of Philosophy, absolute standards for truth and justice. Examine themselves. Socratic Method (Question/Answer)Plato: Person with the greatest intelligence should be king. Found the Academy (oldest school). The RepublicAristotle: Developed the scientific method. Taught Alexander the Great
28Pericles’ Plan for Athens Golden Age of Athens (50 Years) B.C.ArtsDrama, Sculpture, Poetry, Philosophy, Architecture, and SciencePericlesLeader of AthensPolitician, General, Inspiring SpeakerThree GoalsStrengthen Athenian DemocracyStrengthen EmpireGlorify Athens
29Stronger Democracy Paid Public Officials Why is this important?More citizens engaged in politicsDirect DemocracyA form of Gov. in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.How is this different from the United States?
30Greece vs. United States (Pg. 134) Citizens: born in U.S. or complete citizenship processReps. Elected to propose and vote on lawsElected presidentExecutive branch made up of elected and appointed officialsJuries composed of 12 jurorsDefendants and plaintiffs have attorney; long appeals processAthensCitizens: male 18 yrs. Born of citizen parentsLaws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizensLeader chosen by lotExecutive branch composed of a council of 500 menJuries varied in sizeNo attorney; no appeals, one-day trailsBothPolitical power exercised by citizensThree branches of Gov.Legislative Branch passes lawsExecutive branch carries out lawsJudicial branch conducts trials with paid jurors
31AthensCitizensMale 18 yrs. Born of citizen parentsLaws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizensLeader chosen by majorityExecutive branch composed of a council of 500 menJuries varied in sizeNo attorneyNo appeals, one-day trails
32United States Citizens: Reps. Elected to propose and vote on laws Born in U.S. or complete citizenship processReps. Elected to propose and vote on lawsElected presidentExecutive branch made up of elected and appointed officialsJuries composed of 12 jurorsDefendants and plaintiffs have attorneyLong appeals process
33Both Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of Gov. Legislative Branch passes lawsExecutive branch carries out laws
34Athenian Empire Defeated Persians in The Persian Wars Organized the Delian LeagueAthens's Navy the Strongest in the World!!! (Makes Sense)At odds with SpartaSimilar to United States and Soviet Union after World War II
35Used money form the Delian League to Beautify Athens Glorifying AthensUsed money form the Delian League to Beautify AthensBought Gold Ivory and MarbleThese resources went to “Beautifying” Athens
36Glorious Art and Architecture The Parthenon The Parthenon The Parthenon II23,000 square feetBuilt to Honor Athena (Goddess of Wisdom and Protector of Athens)Sculptor PhidiasGiant Statue of Athena (Gold, Ivory)30 Feet TallFaces showed no expression, Portray ideal BeautyClassical Art: Harmony, order, balance and proportion
38Drama and History First Theaters Civic duty for wealthy to pay for TheatersTragedy: Serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayalHero’s tragic flawComedy: A performance filled with slapstick situations and crude humorPolitics, People and IdeasHistory: Thucydides First real historianMust understand the past to know the future!!
39Athenians and Spartans Go to War “Cold War” Differences in ways of lifePeloponnesian War:War between Athens and Sparta 431 B.C B.C.Athens had a stronger NavySparta Stronger ArmySpartans burned the Athenian food supplySparta WinsPlague swept through AthensSyracuse is attacked (Sparta’s Friend)Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.
40Philosophers Search for Truth War left Athenians lacking confidence in Democratic Government and they began to question their valuesPhilosophersLovers of WisdomTwo Constant Ideas!!The universe (Land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging lawsPeople can understand these laws through logic and reasonSophistsQuestioned ideas about justice and traditional valuesQuestioned Reality of “Gods”
41Socrates Question yourself and Moral Character 70 yrs Marjory of citizens could not understand his ideas70 yrsCorrupting Athens youthNot worshiping the GodsDied by drinking Hemlock
42Plato Student of Socrates The Republic Not a democracy vision of a perfectly governed societyNot a democracy3 groups of citizensFarmers/ artisans, warriors and Ruling ClassDominated European thinking for 1,500 yrs.
43Aristotle Question human beliefs, knowledge Scientific Method Argued rules of logicPsychology, Physics, Astronomy and BiologyScientific MethodFamous PupilAlexander The Great3 years as his teacher
44Main Idea QuestionsWhat were the battle strategies of Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian War?What steps did Pericles take to strengthen democracy in Athens?Why do you think some Athenians found the ideas of Socrates so disturbing?
46Vocabulary Philip II: King of Macedonia, Alexander the Great’s Father Macedonia: Area located directly above Greece. Rough terrain and a cold climate. Mountain villages.Alexander the Great: Macedonian King who conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt and the Indus. Hellenistic Culture.Darius III: Persian King who fled Alexander the Great’s Army in Anatolia. Lost his empire to Alexander the Great
47Big Idea: Alexander’s Empire Alexander the Great Conquers Persia and EgyptExtends his empire to the Indus River Valley (Northwest India)Unites 4 RegionsIndiaGreecePersiaEgypt
50Philip Builds Macedonian Power Philip’s ArmyMacedoniaKingdom of Mountain Villages North of GreeceKing Philip II:Ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling GreeceMacedonians:Call themselves GreekRest of Greece does notPhilip Creates well-trained professional army; plans to invade Greece
51Philip Builds Macedonian Power Conquest of Greece338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece Macedonian Phalanx336 B.C. King Philip MurderedHis son named King of MacedoniaAlexander the Great
52Alexander Defeats Persia Alexander’s Early LifeInvasion of PersiaTutored by AristotleInspired by the IliadTrained by the MilitaryBecomes King at 20 years oldDestroys city of Thebes to Curb Rebellion334 B.C. Alexander invades PersiaQuick victory at Granicus RiverDarius III (King of Persia) Assembles army of 50-70,000Alexander defeats Persians againPersians forced to flee
53Alexander Defeats Persia: Conquering the Persian Empire Alexander marches to EgyptCrowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C.Defeats Persians at again (Gaugamela in Mesopotamia)Battle of Gaugamela VideoAlexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa and PersepolisPersepolis, the Persian capital is Burned to the GroundAshes of Persepolis signal total destruction of Persian Empire
54Alexander’s Other Conquests Alexander Video (9 mins) Alexander in IndiaAlexander’s LegacyFights his way across Central Asia to IndiaAlexander conquers the Indus River Valley in 326 B.C.Reluctantly stops fighting (Soldiers wanted to go home!!)11 years of fightingDies in Babylon, 323 B.C.Alexander melts together Greek, Persian, Egyptian CulturesMarried a Persian womenEmpire becomes three kingdoms after his deathMacedonia, Old Greek City StatesEgyptPersia: (aka Seleucid Kingdom)
56Main Ideas How was Philip II able to Conquer Greece? What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?Philip II’s goal was to conquer Persia. Why did Alexander continue his campaign of conquest after this goal have been achieved?
57The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5:5 Chapter 5:5
58VocabularyHellenistic: Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultureAlexandria: Egyptian city which became the most important city in Alexander’s empire. Greatest city/LibraryArchimedes: Hellenistic scientist, estimated the value of Pi, explained the law of the LeverColossus of Rhodes: Island of Rhodes. Bronze statue that stood 100 feet. 1-7 wonders of the ancient world
59Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria Alexander actively tried to blend cultures togetherSpread Greek ideals throughout empireAlexandria: Most important cityTrade from all of Mediterranean SeaInternational Community due to tradeDiverse population ½ million peopleBeautiful city (statues lined the streets)Enormous lighthouse (Pharos)Museum: Filled with arts/culture/paintingsLibrary: ½ million papyrus scrolls. 1st research library (scholars moved to study there)
60Science and Technology Alexandria’s ScholarsScholars preserve Greek and Egyptian learning in the sciencesAstronomyAstronomer Aristarchus proves the sun is larger than the EarthProposes planets revolve around the sun (14 Centuries before anyone else)Eratosthenes uses geometry to calculate the Earth’s circumferenceMath and PhysicsEuclid: Mathematician: Elements the basis for courses in geometryArchimedes: scientist; ideas helped build force pump and steam enginePythagorean Theorem????
61Philosophy and Art Stoicism and Epicureanism Realism in Sculpture Zeno founds Stoic School: promoted virtuous simple livesEpicurus believes people should focus on what sense perceivesRealism in SculptureColossus of RhodesHellenistic bronze sculpture over 100 feet tallSculptures move to non-classical, natural forms; real people