Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea Chapter 5:1
Vocabulary Mycenaean: Indo-Europeans who settled in the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. Trojan War: 10 year war between Mycenaean and City-State of Troy. Epic: Narrative poems that celebrate heroic deeds
Geography Shapes Life Mountainous Peninsula 2,000 islands Water Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Ionian Sea Water served as Transportation System Linked City States together Skilled Sailors Greece lacks Natural Resources!!! Must trade for Timber, metals and farmland/food!
Greece: The Land and Climate ¾ of Greece is Rugged, Rocky Mountains Mountains divided Greece up into specific regions Developed small individual communities/governments Little fertile land and water (Small Population) Varied Climate: 48 Degrees in the Winter 80 degrees in the Summer Active lifestyle Sports/Olympics
Mycenaean Civilization Develops Mycenaeans Indo-Europeans from the Eurasian Steppes Leading City: Mycenae Contact with the Minoans Adopted the Minoan Writing system, Art,
The Trojan War Mycenaean’s 10 year battle against Troy Troy: An Independent trading city located in Anatolia Greek army attacked because Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen “the beautiful wife of a Greek King” English Class!! The Trojan War: Video
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians Dorians took over the Mycenaeans weakened from battles Lack history No Writings Homer: Blind Story Teller, Narrative Poems, The Iliad Achilles Hector of Troy Greek Myths Love, hate, jealousy
Greek Gods Zeus Ruler of the Gods (Lived on Mount Olympus Hera Zeus’s Wife, Jealous all the time Athena Goddess of Wisdom: Zeus’s daughter and favorite child Hades Ruler of the Underworld Name some other Gods?
Main Idea Questions: PG 126 What impact did nearness to the sea have on the development of Greece? What aspects of culture did the Mycenaean's adopt from the Minoans? Why were the epics of importance to the Greeks of the Dorian period?
Classical Greece THE WARRING STATES CHAPTER 5:2
Vocabulary Polis: City state Acropolis: Fortified hilltop, gathering for politics Aristocracy: Government ruled by small group of noble landowning families (rich families) Democracy: Rule by the people (direct democracy) Helot: Peasants force to stay on the land they worked Phalanx: Military formation (shield to shield) Persian Wars: Wars between Greece and the Persian Empire
Rule and Order in Greek City-States Polis City State “Fundamental political unit in ancient Greece” Fewer than 10,000 People Acropolis: Fortified hilltop, downtown area, trade area, meeting area for politics Greek Political Styles: Monarchy: Single person, King Aristocracy: Government ruled by a small group of noble landowning families Oligarchy: Government ruled by a few powerful people
Athens Builds a Limited Democracy Idea of Representative Government Democracy Rule by the People. In Athens, citizens participated directly in political decision making. Draco Developed Legal Code No Citizen should own another citizen Only free adult male property owners born in Athens were considered citizens. Women, slaves, and foreigners were excluded from citizenship and had few rights
Athenian Education Wealthy families sent children to schools Reading, grammar, poetry, history, math, music, gym Boys Military Schools Girls Educated at home by mothers, Child-rearing, home skills.
This is….SPARTA Sparta Located Southern part of Greece Military State
Spartan Daily Life Sparta Government and Society Most Powerful Military in Greece No Individualism Valued Strength, duty, discipline Served in Military till 60 Men 7-30 years “ Come back with your shield or on it !” Branches: Assembly Included everyone The Council of Elders (5) Sparta Builds a Military State
Persian Wars The Persian Wars: Battles between Greece and the Persian Empire Ionian Greeks were invaded by Persians Battle of Marathon 25,000 Persians 10,000 Athenians (Phalanxes) 6,000 Persians vs. 200 Greeks died
Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Thermopylae (The Real 300)The Real 300 300 Spartans 7,000 Greeks vs. Xerxes Army Greeks stopped the Persian Advance for 3 days Traitor informed the Persians of the “Secret Pass” 300 Spartans stayed the rest fled Xerxes’s Army/Navy defeated in Aegean Sea Delian League (City States/ Greek Alliance)
Consequences of the Persian War Athens became the leader of the Delian League Moved the Delian League capital to Athens Golden Age of Athens Athens became the Center Piece for the Greek Civilization
Main Ideas How does an aristocracy differ from an oligarchy What contributions did Solon and Cleisthenes make to development of Athenian democracy How did Athens benefit from victory in the Persian War
Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age CHAPTER 5:3 ROOTS OF ANCIENT GREECE
Vocabulary Direct Democracy: A form of government in which citizens rule directly not through representatives Peloponnesian War: War between Athens and Sparta. Athens had a stronger Navy and Sparta had a stronger Army. Sparta wins. Classical Art: Art that shows ideal beauty. (Harmony, order, balance, proportion) Philosophers: Means “Lover of Wisdom” (Education) Socrates: Father of Philosophy, absolute standards for truth and justice. Examine themselves. Socratic Method (Question/Answer) Plato: Person with the greatest intelligence should be king. Found the Academy (oldest school). The Republic Aristotle: Developed the scientific method. Taught Alexander the Great
Pericles’ Plan for Athens Golden Age of Athens (50 Years) 477-431 B.C. Arts Drama, Sculpture, Poetry, Philosophy, Architecture, and Science Pericles Leader of Athens Politician, General, Inspiring Speaker Three Goals 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy 2. Strengthen Empire 3. Glorify Athens
Stronger Democracy Paid Public Officials Why is this important? More citizens engaged in politics Direct Democracy A form of Gov. in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives. How is this different from the United States?
Greece vs. United States (Pg. 134) United States Citizens: born in U.S. or complete citizenship process Reps. Elected to propose and vote on laws Elected president Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorney; long appeals process Both Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of Gov. Legislative Branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws Judicial branch conducts trials with paid jurors Athens Citizens: male 18 yrs. Born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by lot Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorney; no appeals, one- day trails
Athens Citizens Male 18 yrs. Born of citizen parents Laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens Leader chosen by majority Executive branch composed of a council of 500 men Juries varied in size No attorney No appeals, one-day trails
United States Citizens: Born in U.S. or complete citizenship process Reps. Elected to propose and vote on laws Elected president Executive branch made up of elected and appointed officials Juries composed of 12 jurors Defendants and plaintiffs have attorney Long appeals process
Both Political power exercised by citizens Three branches of Gov. Legislative Branch passes laws Executive branch carries out laws
Athenian Empire Defeated Persians in The Persian Wars Organized the Delian League Athens's Navy the Strongest in the World!!! (Makes Sense) At odds with Sparta Similar to United States and Soviet Union after World War II
Glorifying Athens Used money form the Delian League to Beautify Athens Bought Gold Ivory and Marble These resources went to “Beautifying” Athens
Glorious Art and Architecture The Parthenon The Parthenon The Parthenon II The ParthenonThe Parthenon II 23,000 square feet Built to Honor Athena (Goddess of Wisdom and Protector of Athens) Sculptor Phidias Giant Statue of Athena (Gold, Ivory) 30 Feet Tall Faces showed no expression, Portray ideal Beauty Classical Art: Harmony, order, balance and proportion
Drama and History First Theaters Civic duty for wealthy to pay for Theaters Tragedy: Serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war or betrayal Hero’s tragic flaw Comedy: A performance filled with slapstick situations and crude humor Politics, People and Ideas History: Thucydides First real historian Must understand the past to know the future!!
Athenians and Spartans Go to War “Cold War” Differences in ways of life Peloponnesian War: War between Athens and Sparta 431 B.C.- 404 B.C. Athens had a stronger Navy Sparta Stronger Army Spartans burned the Athenian food supply Sparta Wins Plague swept through Athens Syracuse is attacked (Sparta’s Friend) Athens surrendered in 404 B.C.
Philosophers Search for Truth War left Athenians lacking confidence in Democratic Government and they began to question their values Philosophers Lovers of Wisdom Two Constant Ideas!! 1. The universe (Land, sky, and sea) is put together in an orderly way, and subject to absolute and unchanging laws 2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason Sophists Questioned ideas about justice and traditional values Questioned Reality of “Gods”
Socrates Question yourself and Moral Character Marjory of citizens could not understand his ideas 70 yrs Corrupting Athens youth Not worshiping the Gods Died by drinking Hemlock
Plato Student of Socrates The Republic vision of a perfectly governed society Not a democracy 3 groups of citizens Farmers/ artisans, warriors and Ruling Class Dominated European thinking for 1,500 yrs.
Aristotle Question human beliefs, knowledge Argued rules of logic Psychology, Physics, Astronomy and Biology Scientific Method Famous Pupil Alexander The Great 3 years as his teacher
Main Idea Questions What were the battle strategies of Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian War? What steps did Pericles take to strengthen democracy in Athens? Why do you think some Athenians found the ideas of Socrates so disturbing?
Vocabulary Philip II: King of Macedonia, Alexander the Great’s Father Macedonia: Area located directly above Greece. Rough terrain and a cold climate. Mountain villages. Alexander the Great: Macedonian King who conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt and the Indus. Hellenistic Culture. Darius III: Persian King who fled Alexander the Great’s Army in Anatolia. Lost his empire to Alexander the Great
Big Idea: Alexander’s Empire Alexander the Great Conquers Persia and Egypt Extends his empire to the Indus River Valley (Northwest India) Unites 4 Regions India Greece Persia Egypt
Philip Builds Macedonian Power Macedonia Kingdom of Mountain Villages North of Greece King Philip II: Ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece Macedonians: Call themselves Greek Rest of Greece does not Philip’s Army Philip Creates well- trained professional army; plans to invade Greece
Philip Builds Macedonian Power Conquest of Greece 338 B.C. Macedonians defeat Greece Macedonian Phalanx Macedonian Phalanx 336 B.C. King Philip Murdered His son named King of Macedonia Alexander the Great
Alexander Defeats Persia Alexander’s Early Life Tutored by Aristotle Inspired by the Iliad Trained by the Military Becomes King at 20 years old Destroys city of Thebes to Curb Rebellion Invasion of Persia 334 B.C. Alexander invades Persia Quick victory at Granicus River Darius III (King of Persia) Assembles army of 50-70,000 Alexander defeats Persians again Persians forced to flee
Alexander Defeats Persia: Conquering the Persian Empire Alexander marches to Egypt Crowned Pharaoh in 332 B.C. Defeats Persians at again (Gaugamela in Mesopotamia) Battle of Gaugamela Video Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa and Persepolis Persepolis, the Persian capital is Burned to the Ground Ashes of Persepolis signal total destruction of Persian Empire
Alexander’s Other Conquests Alexander Video (9 mins) Alexander Video Alexander in India Fights his way across Central Asia to India Alexander conquers the Indus River Valley in 326 B.C. Reluctantly stops fighting (Soldiers wanted to go home!!) 11 years of fighting Dies in Babylon, 323 B.C. Alexander’s Legacy Alexander melts together Greek, Persian, Egyptian Cultures Married a Persian women Empire becomes three kingdoms after his death 1. Macedonia, Old Greek City States 2. Egypt 3. Persia: (aka Seleucid Kingdom)
Main Ideas How was Philip II able to Conquer Greece? Philip II’s goal was to conquer Persia. Why did Alexander continue his campaign of conquest after this goal have been achieved? What happened to Alexander’s empire after his death?
CHAPTER 5:5 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture 5:5
Vocabulary Hellenistic: Blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture Alexandria: Egyptian city which became the most important city in Alexander’s empire. Greatest city/Library Archimedes: Hellenistic scientist, estimated the value of Pi, explained the law of the Lever Colossus of Rhodes: Island of Rhodes. Bronze statue that stood 100 feet. 1-7 wonders of the ancient world
Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria Alexander actively tried to blend cultures together Spread Greek ideals throughout empire Alexandria: Most important city Trade from all of Mediterranean Sea International Community due to trade Diverse population ½ million people Beautiful city (statues lined the streets) Enormous lighthouse (Pharos) Museum: Filled with arts/culture/paintings Library: ½ million papyrus scrolls. 1 st research library (scholars moved to study there)
Science and Technology Alexandria’s Scholars Scholars preserve Greek and Egyptian learning in the sciences Astronomy Astronomer Aristarchus proves the sun is larger than the Earth Proposes planets revolve around the sun (14 Centuries before anyone else) Eratosthenes uses geometry to calculate the Earth’s circumference Math and Physics Euclid: Mathematician: Elements the basis for courses in geometry Archimedes: scientist; ideas helped build force pump and steam engine Pythagorean Theorem????
Philosophy and Art Stoicism and Epicureanism Zeno founds Stoic School: promoted virtuous simple lives Epicurus believes people should focus on what sense perceives Realism in Sculpture Colossus of Rhodes Hellenistic bronze sculpture over 100 feet tall Sculptures move to non-classical, natural forms; real people