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Chapter 5 Section 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Golden Age of Athens 477 B.C. – 431 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Section 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Golden Age of Athens 477 B.C. – 431 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Section 3 Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age Golden Age of Athens 477 B.C. – 431 B.C.

2 Pericles’ Plan for Athens  Pericles was a statesman who influenced life in Athens for 32 years.  Pericles had three goals

3 1. Create a Stronger Democracy  Increased number of public officials and they were paid  Pericles developed a direct democracy.  What is it?  Citizens rule directly, not through representatives

4 2. Athenian Empire  Pericles took money from the Delian League’s treasury to strengthen the navy  Other members of Delian League were treated as part of the empire  Peloponnesus cities (Sparta) resisted Athens and formed their own alliances

5 3. Glorifying Athens  Without League’s approval, Pericles used money to beautify Athens

6 Glorious Art and Architecture Wanted to create magnificent sculptures and buildings like the Parthenon

7 Architecture and Sculpture  Phidias worked on the Parthenon  Works portrayed ideal beauty not realism  These works became known as classical art Phidias

8 Drama and History Greeks created drama as an art form and built the first theaters



11 Tragedy and Comedy  Tragedy: serious drama about common themes  Hero usually had a flaw such as hubris.  3 tragedy writers  Aeschylus who wrote Oresteia a story based on Agamemnon  Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King and Antigone  Euripides wrote Medea

12 Tragedy and Comedy Cont.d’  Comedies had slapstick and crude humor  Aristophanes wrote The Birds and Lysistrata

13 History  Homer’s records are not accurate.  Herodotus accurately reported events  Athenian Thucydides was the greatest historian

14 Athenians and Spartans Go to War  Other Greek city- states looked at Athens in a negative way  431 B.C. Sparta declared war on Athens

15 Peloponnesian War  Athens vs. Spartans  Athens had a stronger navy, Sparta had a stronger army  Pericles wanted to avoid land battle and attack on the sea  Spartans marched into Athenian territory and burnt their food supply

16 Peloponnesian War Cont.d’  Pericles brought people into the city walls  Food could be brought by ships that sailed into the ports of Athenian colonies.  2 nd year of war a plague swept through Athens killed 1/3 of the population including Pericles.  421 B.C. a truce was signed


18 Sparta Gains Victory  Peace didn’t last  415 B.C. Athenians sent a fleet with 20,000 soldiers to Sicily attempting to destroy Syracuse, Sparta's ally  413 Athens was defeated  In 404 B.C. Athenians and allies surrendered

19 Philosophers Search for Truth  Athenians questioned Democratic government  Philosophers emerged to seek the truth and based their findings on two assumptions  1. The universe is put together in an orderly way and subject to absolute and unchanging laws.  2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason.

20 Philosophers Search for Truth  Protagoras, a philosopher in the Sophists group, questioned the existence of traditional Greek gods

21 Socrates  Critic of the Sophists  Stated absolute standard did exist for truth and justice  Either people admired him or thought he was strange  He encouraged students to examine their beliefs  Asked them questions to show that people had contradictory opinions  These question/answer sessions led to the Socratic method

22 Socrates Cont.d’  399 B.C. he was brought to trial for “corrupting the youth of Athens” and “neglecting the city’s gods”  Socrates said his teachings were good  Jury condemned him to death  He drank hemlock and died


24 Plato  Student of Socrates  Founded a school called the Academy  Wrote his most famous work, The Republic  Described his perfectly governed society  Not a democracy

25 Plato Cont.d’  His ideal, citizens fell into three groups  Farmers and artisans, warriors, and ruling class  His rivals, Socrates and his pupil Aristotle PLATOARISTOTLE


27 Aristotle  Questioned the nature of the world and human belief, thought and knowledge  Invented a method for arguing according to logic.  This provides the basis of the scientific method used today.

28 Aristotle Cont.d’  Opened a school called the Lyceum.  Alexander, son of King Philip II of Macedonia, was one of his most famous pupils  Taught him at age 13 until he was called back home at age 16.


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