Presentation on theme: "Geography and Early Greek Civilization"— Presentation transcript:
1Geography and Early Greek Civilization In this lesson, students will identify characteristics of Greece’s geography and its impact on the development of ancient cultures.Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms and concepts:The Geography of GreeceGeographic Effects on Greek culturesPolis
6The Effects of Mountains Greece’s mountainous terrain separated the ancient Greek cities.As such, the ancient Greeks never developed a unified system of government.The ancient Greeks developed the polis or city-state.
8The Polis Polis was the Greek word for “city-state”. A polis was an independent city and its surrounding farmland.Every polis had its own government and laws but the Greeks shared a common language and religion.
9The ancient Greeks farmed but it was difficult. Hills are not suited for farming.
11Even today, the Greeks have access to the Mediterranean Sea and theAegean Sea.
12The Seas Greece is a peninsula and islands. Seas surround parts of Greece.The Seas allowed the Greeks to travel and trade.Trade encouraged cultural diffusion.
13Trade and Cultural Diffusion The seas allowed the Greeks to depend heavily on trade.Trade encouraged cultural diffusion.The Greeks were exposed to the Phoenician alphabet and Egyptian geometry.
14Questions for Reflection: Why was it difficult to farm in ancient Greece?Why did the Greeks depend heavily on trade?List two geographic features and their effects on the Greeks.Why did the ancient Greeks never develop a unified system of government?Define polis.
15The Greek City-StatesIn this lesson, students will identify characteristics of the Greek city-states.Students will be able to identify and/ or define the following terms:PolisGolden AgeDemocracyHelots
16It is important to remember that mountains separated the Greek city-states.
17The PolisThe hilly terrain separated the Greeks. Though the Greeks shared a common language and religion, they never developed a unified system of government.The Greeks lived in separate, independent city-states.The Greek word for a “city-state” was a polis.
18This magnificent building is the Parthenon. The Parthenon was a temple in Athens,a Greek polis.
19Athens Athens was an important polis in ancient Greece. The people of Athens developed democracy.Democracy is a system of government where citizens vote or participate in government.
20In Athenian democracy, only free men born in Athens could vote. Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.
21This is a painting of the famous Athenian philosopher, Socrates. He encouragedhis followers to ask questions.
22The Golden Age of Athens Athens experienced a golden age.A golden age is a time of peace, prosperity, and great achievements.The Athenians produced great works of literature, philosophy, and art.
28Questions for Reflection: What was a polis and why did the Greeks develop the polis?Define a golden age and name a Greek polis that experienced a golden age.List three differences between the ancient Greek polis of Athens and Sparta.Who were the helots and how were they treated?Describe Athenian democracy.
29War Tests the GreeksIn this lesson, students will identify characteristics of the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War.Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms:Causes of the Persian WarsEffects of the Persian WarsCauses of the Peloponnesian WarEffects of the Peloponnesian War
31The Persians and the Greeks In 519 B.C., the Persians conquered a group of people called the Ionian Greeks who lived in Asia Minor.The Ionian Greeks asked the mainland Greeks for help.The Greeks did help and the Persian king was furious.
33The Persian Wars The Persian army outnumbered the Athenian army. However, the smaller Greek ships could move easily in the water. The Greek ships destroyed the Persian ships.Many Greek city-states also united to defeat the Persians.
34Look at the map! Can you see why the smaller Greek ships had an advantage?
35The Alliance After the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states united. Each city-state agreed to give money or ships to be used to defend all of them. Athens led the alliance. The alliance was called the Delian League.However, Athens used the alliance money to rebuild Athens.
42Questions for Reflection: Why did the Persians invade Greece?Why did the Persian Wars strengthen the Greeks?Define the Delian League.Why did the Peloponnesian War begin?Why did the Peloponnesian War weaken the Greeks?
43The Legacy of Classical Greece In this lesson, students will be able to identify accomplishments of classical Greek civilization.Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms:DemocracyParthenonSocratesPythagoras
44A classical civilization is a civilization that has given the world important ideas andinventions that people still use today.
45Ancient Greek civilization is considered a classical civilization.
46Athenian DemocracyThe ancient Greek city-state of Athens developed the first democratic government.A democracy is a system of government where citizens participate in government.Only free men born in Athens could be citizens. Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.
47The ancient Athenians were the first people to use voting as a form of participation in government.
48Architecture The Greeks built temples with beautiful columns. Greek architecture still influences people today.Many government buildings in the United States are modeled after Greek temples.
49The Parthenon was a Greek temple to the goddess, Athena. Notice the use ofcolumns.
50The U.S. Supreme Court building is clearly influenced by the Parthenon.
51Classical Greek Philosophy The ancient Greeks were the first students of philosophy. They wanted to know the meaning of life and how people should live.Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle still influence people today.Socrates encouraged people to think for themselves and to ask questions.
52Socrates was a great Greek philosopher. He was tried and found guilty of corruptingthe youth of Athens. For encouragingpeople to ask questions, he was forcedto commit suicide.
53The Greek Mathematicians The ancient Greeks also made advances in mathematics.Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes were important Greek mathematicians.The Pythagorean theorem examines the relationship between the three sides of a right triangle.
54The ancient Greeks gave us many important mathematical theorems.
55The Legacy of Classical Greece A legacy is defined as something handed down from the past.The ancient Greeks have passed down many important ideas and inventions to our modern world.Democracy, the use of columns, mathematical ideas, and philosophies are just a few of the ideas passed down to modern people from the ancient Greeks..
56The ancient Greeks were the first people to perform plays and write comedies and dramas.
57Questions for Reflection: Define legacy.List two important contributions of the ancient Greeks to the modern world.How do Greek ideas concerning government still influence us today?How do Greek ideas concerning architecture still influence us today?Why is ancient Greece considered a classical civilization?