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Unit 3: Ancient Greece.

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1 Unit 3: Ancient Greece


3 Geography Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs
It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another

4 Trade with others (Greece has poor resources) Food
The SEA provides Travel to other places Trade with others (Greece has poor resources) Food

5 Division from mountains Differences because of division
The LAND creates Division from mountains Differences because of division Disunity because of differences

6 The CLIMATE allows Outdoor public meetings

7 Trojan War

8 Early Greeks Mycenaeans took power around 2000 B.C.
Trojan War – a war around 1200 BC in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy Troy is a Greek legend – is it true or false? Mycenaean power declines after this

9 Greek Culture Declines
Mycenaeans lose power Dorians take control Dorians are stupid Economy collapses Trade declines People even forget how to write! It’s the Dark Ages for Greece

10 Key Terms Polis – Greek City-State
Acropolis – Fortified hilltop in Greek City-states where people met Monarchy - Government in the hands of a single ruler, usually a king

11 Aristocracy – Government in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Oligarchy – Government in the hands of a few wealthy people

12 Phalanx- A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
Peloponnesian War – a war between 431 and 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies

13 Sparta Government Assembly of all free adult males Council of Elders
Ephors (judges) Kings (Military)

14 Sparta Social Structures Citizens
Free Non-citizens (Foreigners and women) Helots (indentured Servants) Slaves Women had many rights, but could not vote

15 Sparta Education Hard military training from age 7 for boys
Girls and boys learned to read and write Little further academic training

16 Sparta Arts None! Duty, Strength and discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom


18 Athens Government Democracy – Rule by people
Council of Five Hundred (proposed laws) Free adult males are citizens and participate in government

19 Athens Social Structures Citizens Foreigners and Women
Slaves (1/3 of all population) Women, foreigners and slaves had few rights

20 Athens Education None for girls Boys highly educated
Higher education available for wealthy

21 Athens Arts Philosophy Literature Poetry Sculpture Theater
Arts were very important and taught to all boys


23 Persian Wars 480 B.C. Greece vs. Persia Marathon Thermopylae (“300”)
Salamis Plataea Greeks win


25 Peloponnesian War 431 B.C. – 404 B.C.
Athens (navy) Vs. Sparta (Army) Sparta Wins

26 Spartans vs. Athenians! The PELOPONNESIAN WAR – a war between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C.E. to 404 B.C.E. in which Sparta won had many effects on the city-states. Sparta had land advantage/Athens naval Plague hurts Athens – Pericles dies Athens loses; democracy weakens

27 The Golden Age Athens went through a G.A. after the Persian Wars (480 – 430 B.C.E.) During Athens’ G.A., drama, architecture, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, and science reached new heights.

28 Pericles ( B.C.E.) PERICLES – A wise and able Athenian politician – led Athens for 32 years during its G.A. He had 3 goals: To strengthen Athenian democracy To hold and strengthen the empire To glorify Athens

29 Pericles’ Goal #1 - Democracy
Pericles increased # of paid public officials Introduced DIRECT DEMOCRACY – a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.

30 Pericles’ Goal #2 - Empire
Pericles strengthened the navy Made it the most powerful in the Mediterranean

31 Pericles’ Goal #3 - Glorify
He made Athens pretty!  Parthenon Arts Sculpture Drama


33 Philosophers Philosophers searched for truth during these uncertain times Socrates – philosopher ( B.C.E.) Plato – philosopher ( B.C.E.) Aristotle – philosopher ( B.C.E.)

34 Homer Blind Greek author/storyteller
Composed epics – narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds The Iliad The Odyssey

35 Philip Builds Macedonia’s Power
The Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states In the north, Philip prepared Macedonia to invade

36 Philip transformed peasants into a professional army
Used a heavy 16x16 phalanx formation Greek city states could not unite against Philip until it was too late…

37 The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) ended Greek freedom and independence
Philip was murdered (336 BC) Never got to invade Persia

38 Alexander Defeats Persia
20-year-old Alexander takes Macedonia over after his father dies Alexander was already a great leader Education (Aristotle) Inspiration (Illiad) Military (Chaeronea, Thebes)

39 With Greece under his control, he turns to Persia
Alexander wins two important battles against Darius III Darius offers Alexander 1/3 the Persian Empire, but Alexander refuses

40 The final victory comes at Gaugamela
Alexander’s phalanx vs. Persian chariots with scythes Alexander’s victory ends Persian control His army takes advantage of the empire’s massive wealth

41 Alexander’s Other Conquests
Alexander continued conquests in India and SW Asia over the next years His soldiers marched >11,000 miles in 11 years Finally head back in 323 BC


43 Alexander’s Legacy Alexander died of fever when he returned
Who would control the huge empire? 3 general divided it and ruled with absolute power Alexander’s rule ended the freedom of Greek city-states and created a new culture

44 Hellenistic Culture After Alexander’s death, a blended culture called HELLENISTIC – A MIX OF GREEK, EGYPTIAN, AND EASTERN CULTURES – started. Alexandria in Egypt became the center of the Hellenistic world It was an international port city full of trade and commerce

45 Alexandria was magnificent
Palaces Statues Lighthouse Museum Library

46 Hellenistic Science & Technology
Scientists in Alexandria studied Astronomy Earth center of universe Earth’s size (accurate) Euclid creates a geometry text used the next 2000 years Archimedes establishes pi (3.14)

47 Hellenistic Philosophy & Art
Stoicism and Epicureanism Sculpture flourishes Hellenistic sculpture focuses on more natural forms than the Greeks


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