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Unit 3: Ancient Greece. Geography Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: Ancient Greece. Geography Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3: Ancient Greece


3 Geography Geography shaped Greek traditions and customs It also kept the Greeks isolated from one another

4 The SEA provides –T ravel to other places –T rade with others (Greece has poor resources) –F ood

5 The LAND creates –D ivision from mountains –D ifferences because of division –D isunity because of differences

6 The CLIMATE allows –Outdoor public meetings

7 Trojan War

8 Early Greeks Mycenaeans took power around 2000 B.C. Trojan War – a war around 1200 BC in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy –Troy is a Greek legend – is it true or false? Mycenaean power declines after this

9 Greek Culture Declines Mycenaeans lose power Dorians take control –Dorians are stupid Economy collapses Trade declines People even forget how to write! It’s the Dark Ages for Greece

10 Key Terms Polis – Greek City-State Acropolis – Fortified hilltop in Greek City-states where people met Monarchy - Government in the hands of a single ruler, usually a king

11 Aristocracy – Government in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility Oligarchy – Government in the hands of a few wealthy people

12 Phalanx- A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields Peloponnesian War – a war between 431 and 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies

13 Sparta Government –Assembly of all free adult males –Council of Elders –Ephors (judges) –Kings (Military)

14 Sparta Social Structures –Citizens –Free Non-citizens (Foreigners and women) –Helots (indentured Servants) –Slaves –Women had many rights, but could not vote

15 Sparta Education –Hard military training from age 7 for boys –Girls and boys learned to read and write –Little further academic training

16 Sparta Arts –None! –Duty, Strength and discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom


18 Athens Government –Democracy – Rule by people –Council of Five Hundred (proposed laws) –Free adult males are citizens and participate in government

19 Athens Social Structures –Citizens –Foreigners and Women –Slaves (1/3 of all population) –Women, foreigners and slaves had few rights

20 Athens Education –None for girls –Boys highly educated –Higher education available for wealthy

21 Athens Arts –Philosophy –Literature –Poetry –Sculpture –Theater –Arts were very important and taught to all boys


23 Persian Wars 480 B.C. Greece vs. Persia –Marathon –Thermopylae (“300”) –Salamis –Plataea Greeks win


25 Peloponnesian War 431 B.C. – 404 B.C. Athens (navy) Vs. Sparta (Army) Sparta Wins

26 Spartans vs. Athenians! The PELOPONNESIAN WAR – a war between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C.E. to 404 B.C.E. in which Sparta won had many effects on the city-states. Sparta had land advantage/Athens naval Plague hurts Athens – Pericles dies Athens loses; democracy weakens

27 The Golden Age Athens went through a G.A. after the Persian Wars (480 – 430 B.C.E.) During Athens’ G.A., drama, architecture, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, and science reached new heights.

28 Pericles (494-429 B.C.E.) PERICLES – A wise and able Athenian politician – led Athens for 32 years during its G.A. He had 3 goals: –To strengthen Athenian democracy –To hold and strengthen the empire –To glorify Athens

29 Pericles’ Goal #1 - Democracy Pericles increased # of paid public officials Introduced DIRECT DEMOCRACY – a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.

30 Pericles’ Goal #2 - Empire Pericles strengthened the navy Made it the most powerful in the Mediterranean

31 Pericles’ Goal #3 - Glorify He made Athens pretty! Parthenon Arts –Sculpture –Drama


33 Philosophers Philosophers searched for truth during these uncertain times Socrates – philosopher (469-399 B.C.E.) Plato – philosopher (427-347 B.C.E.) Aristotle – philosopher (384- 322 B.C.E.)

34 Homer Blind Greek author/storyteller Composed epics – narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds –The Iliad –The Odyssey

35 Philip Builds Macedonia’s Power The Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city- states In the north, Philip prepared Macedonia to invade

36 Philip transformed peasants into a professional army Used a heavy 16x16 phalanx formation Greek city states could not unite against Philip until it was too late…

37 The Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) ended Greek freedom and independence Philip was murdered (336 BC) Never got to invade Persia

38 Alexander Defeats Persia 20-year-old Alexander takes Macedonia over after his father dies Alexander was already a great leader –Education (Aristotle) –Inspiration (Illiad) –Military (Chaeronea, Thebes)

39 With Greece under his control, he turns to Persia Alexander wins two important battles against Darius III Darius offers Alexander 1/3 the Persian Empire, but Alexander refuses

40 The final victory comes at Gaugamela Alexander’s phalanx vs. Persian chariots with scythes Alexander’s victory ends Persian control His army takes advantage of the empire’s massive wealth

41 Alexander’s Other Conquests Alexander continued conquests in India and SW Asia over the next years His soldiers marched >11,000 miles in 11 years Finally head back in 323 BC


43 Alexander’s Legacy Alexander died of fever when he returned Who would control the huge empire? 3 general divided it and ruled with absolute power Alexander’s rule ended the freedom of Greek city-states and created a new culture

44 Hellenistic Culture After Alexander’s death, a blended culture called HELLENISTIC – A MIX OF GREEK, EGYPTIAN, AND EASTERN CULTURES – started. Alexandria in Egypt became the center of the Hellenistic world It was an international port city full of trade and commerce

45 Alexandria was magnificent –Palaces –Statues –Lighthouse –Museum –Library

46 Hellenistic Science & Technology Scientists in Alexandria studied Astronomy –Earth center of universe –Earth’s size (accurate) Euclid creates a geometry text used the next 2000 years Archimedes establishes pi (3.14)

47 Hellenistic Philosophy & Art Stoicism and Epicureanism Sculpture flourishes Hellenistic sculpture focuses on more natural forms than the Greeks


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