8 Early Greeks Mycenaeans took power around 2000 B.C. Trojan War – a war around 1200 BC in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of TroyTroy is a Greek legend – is it true or false?Mycenaean power declines after this
9 Greek Culture Declines Mycenaeans lose powerDorians take controlDorians are stupidEconomy collapsesTrade declinesPeople even forget how to write!It’s the Dark Ages for Greece
10 Key Terms Polis – Greek City-State Acropolis – Fortified hilltop in Greek City-states where people metMonarchy - Government in the hands of a single ruler, usually a king
11 Aristocracy – Government in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility Oligarchy – Government in the hands of a few wealthy people
12 Phalanx- A military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields Peloponnesian War – a war between 431 and 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
13 Sparta Government Assembly of all free adult males Council of Elders Ephors (judges)Kings (Military)
14 Sparta Social Structures Citizens Free Non-citizens (Foreigners and women)Helots (indentured Servants)SlavesWomen had many rights, but could not vote
15 Sparta Education Hard military training from age 7 for boys Girls and boys learned to read and writeLittle further academic training
16 SpartaArtsNone!Duty, Strength and discipline over individuality, beauty and freedom
25 Peloponnesian War 431 B.C. – 404 B.C. Athens (navy) Vs. Sparta (Army)Sparta Wins
26 Spartans vs. Athenians!The PELOPONNESIAN WAR – a war between Athens and Sparta from 431 B.C.E. to 404 B.C.E. in which Sparta won had many effects on the city-states.Sparta had land advantage/Athens navalPlague hurts Athens – Pericles diesAthens loses; democracy weakens
27 The Golden AgeAthens went through a G.A. after the Persian Wars (480 – 430 B.C.E.)During Athens’ G.A., drama, architecture, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, and science reached new heights.
28 Pericles ( B.C.E.)PERICLES – A wise and able Athenian politician – led Athens for 32 years during its G.A.He had 3 goals:To strengthen Athenian democracyTo hold and strengthen the empireTo glorify Athens
29 Pericles’ Goal #1 - Democracy Pericles increased # of paid public officialsIntroduced DIRECT DEMOCRACY – a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
30 Pericles’ Goal #2 - Empire Pericles strengthened the navyMade it the most powerful in the Mediterranean
31 Pericles’ Goal #3 - Glorify He made Athens pretty! ParthenonArtsSculptureDrama
43 Alexander’s Legacy Alexander died of fever when he returned Who would control the huge empire?3 general divided it and ruled with absolute powerAlexander’s rule ended the freedom of Greek city-states and created a new culture
44 Hellenistic CultureAfter Alexander’s death, a blended culture called HELLENISTIC – A MIX OF GREEK, EGYPTIAN, AND EASTERN CULTURES – started.Alexandria in Egypt became the center of the Hellenistic worldIt was an international port city full of trade and commerce
45 Alexandria was magnificent PalacesStatuesLighthouseMuseumLibrary
46 Hellenistic Science & Technology Scientists in Alexandria studied AstronomyEarth center of universeEarth’s size (accurate)Euclid creates a geometry text used the next 2000 yearsArchimedes establishes pi (3.14)
47 Hellenistic Philosophy & Art Stoicism and EpicureanismSculpture flourishesHellenistic sculpture focuses on more natural forms than the Greeks
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