Presentation on theme: "Persia Attacks the Greeks and The Age of Pericles Mr. Roe 6 th Grade Social Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Persia Attacks the Greeks and The Age of Pericles Mr. Roe 6 th Grade Social Studies
Review -You learned that tyrants seized power from the nobles with the help of wealthy merchants and artisans -You also learned that Sparta created a powerful military society while Athens created a powerful democracy and both of them fought eachother in the Peloponnesian war
K-W-L Chart Begin by filling out the “K” section of your K-W-L chart for this section.
BIG IDEA (s) The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians. Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic. Athenian men and women had very different roles. Sparta and Athens went to war for control of Greece.
Content Vocabulary Direct Democracy Representative Democracy Philosopher Places People Delos Pericles Persia Aspasia Marathon Cyrus the Great Thermopylae Darius Salami Xerxes Plataea Themistocles
After This Section, You Will Be Able To: -Discuss the history of the Persian people -Explain how Cyrus united Persia -Describe the organization of the Persian government -Explain how under Pericles, Athens became powerful -Explain the difference between direct and representative democracy -Discuss the roles of Athenian men and women -Describe the events of the Peloponnesian war
The Persian Empire Under Cyrus the Great, the Persians built an empire larger than any yet seen in the world! (559 to 530 B.C.). It was about the same size as the USA is today!
Rise of the Persian Empire *Cyrus treated captured subjects “well” -Remember, her allowed captive Jews in Babylon to return home PARTNER CHECK: By treating his enemies better than previous rulers, do you think it helped keep the Persian Empire together better? Why or Why not? * Most of Cyrus’s subjects were nomads. Why might nomads make good warriors?
Persian Government Persian government was large and difficult to manage Darius needed to reorganize it HOW? 1) Divided empire into 20 provinces called satrapies 2) Each was ruled by an official called a satrap 3) Satraps had to answer to the Persian king 4) Government paid people to be full-time soldiers. Unlike Greece, whose citizens became soldiers in wartime. Take a moment, and create an outline that represents the organization of the Persian Government Note: Satrap means “protector of the kingdom”
King Darius King himself had 10,000 men as his personal guards. They were called the immortals, because when one died, they were immediately replaced!
Zoroastrianism Zoroaster claimed to see visions as a young man He believed in one god Thought that good would eventually triumph over evil Ancient Persians practiced Zoroastrianism
Partner Check Have you ever had to set aside your differences with somebody you didn’t agree with in order to achieve a common goal? Explain Persians began to worry that the Greek colonies were starting to interfere with the Persian Empire. So, Persia decides to invade Greece.
Persian Wars ( B.C.) Sparta and Athens had to stop fighting each other in order to face the Persian invasion A. Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.) 1. Persian navy lands 20,000 soldiers at Marathon 2. Athenians had 10,000, but defeated Persians p Athenians sent a runner to Athens with the news
THIS is how we got the marathon race! The runner, Pheidippides ran 25 miles from Marathon to Athens, and died from exhaustion in Athens.
Persians Strike Again *Xerxes became king after Darius’s death -wanted revenge for the loss at marathon 7,000 Greeks held off the Persian army in a narrow mountain passage near Thermopylae Themistocles took Athenian navy to cut off Persian supply ships in the sea Greeks were betrayed by another Greek who showed the Persians a passage through the mountains King Leonidas and his Spartans fought the Persians while they saved time for the other Greek armies to get to safety HENCE, the movie 300!
CAUSE/EFFECT They say because the Spartans fought to the death against the Persians, the Athenians were able to gather enough ships to destroy the Persian navy! Greeks attacked Persian fleet in straight of Salamis Yet, the Persian army marched to Athens and burnt the city to the ground. (cause/effect: how do you think the Greeks responded to this?)
Persian Empire Declines *Greeks weakened and defeated Persian army (Battle of Plataea) *Empire became too big and too hard to manage *Taxed subjects to much=led to revolts *This would set the stage for Alexander the Great to invade Persia
Athenian Empire *Formed something called the Delian League -Group formed of Greeks to defend members against Persians and continue to drive Persians out of Greece -Athens gained control of league, and turned it into an Athenian empire!!
Direct vs. Representative Democracy Athens had a direct democracy (every citizen can vote during a mass meeting) The United States has a representative democracy (citizens choose a small group of people to vote on their behalf) In what situations would one type of democracy be “better” than another? Look at the chart on pg. 360 and compare Athenian and American democracy
Pericles (Elected B.C.) *Rebuild much of Athens after the war *Paid officials and encouraged all men of different social rank to run for office *Demanded loyalty and tribute from other Greek city-states under Athenian control *Encouraged creativity and the arts in Athens (and Philosophy!!!!) *Pericles referred to Athens as “the school of Greece”
Turn to Page 361 Read the biography about Pericles Decide whether or not you agree that the Age of Pericles was Athens Golden Age Do you agree with the BIG IDEA that “ Under Pericles, Athens became very powerful and more democratic.” Why or why not?
Daily Life in Athens *Athens had the largest population of any Greek city-state Men Usually worked in the day, and drank and met together in the evening to discuss philosophy Women -home and family, married at 14 or 15 -Could leave the house only with a male relative -Could not own property/attend school *Some women, like Aspasia, were well educated and became important leaders for people like Pericles to look to for advice
Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.-404 B.C.) * Sparta’s allies (other Greeks) wanted Sparta to fight against Athens * Athens had become very powerful, and was threatening nearby Greek city-states and making them pay tribute *Many people dies, and one winter, Pericles gave the Funeral oration to remind people what it meant to live in a democracy and have citizenship -Turn to page 366 and read the excerpt
Athens is Defeated Athens navy allowed it to withstand the Spartans Then, a deadly disease killed 1 of every 3 people in Athens, including Pericles Spartans made a deal with the Persians!!!!!! Persians gave the Spartans money so the Spartans could built a navy. Athens eventually surrendered. Spartans and their allies tore down Athens’ walls and broke apart the Athenian empire.
Effect of the Sparta/Athens War Many people died, and it costs Greece in both manpower and resources Sparta created an empire after, but Thebes fought Sparta for control and won Persians would fight against Greece again All in all, Greece became very weak while the Macedonians to their north became very strong. Guess what happens.
Summary *Democracy and culture in Athens flourished under Pericles *Athens and Sparta fought each other in the Peloponnesian War and this led to the weakening of ALL of Greece *Athenian men and women had very different roles *The Persian Empire united its lands under a single government *Persia attacked Greece but were defeated by Athens and Sparta
K-W-L Chart Please take this time to complete your KWL chart for this section!