Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 – The Greek World Section Notes Greece and Persia Sparta and Athens Alexander the Great Greek Achievements Video Greek Philosophers and Modern."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 – The Greek World Section Notes Greece and Persia Sparta and Athens Alexander the Great Greek Achievements Video Greek Philosophers and Modern Thought History Close-up The Parthenon Images Persia under Darius Phalanx Greek Sculpture Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates Quick Facts Life in Sparta Life in Athens Chapter 10 Visual Summary Maps The Persian Empire The Persian Wars The Peloponnesian War, c. 431-404 BC Alexander the Great’s Empire, c. 323 BC
Greece and Persia The Big Idea Over time the Persians came to rule a great empire which eventually brought them into conflict with the Greeks. Main Ideas Persia became an empire under Cyrus the Great. The Persian Empire grew stronger under Darius I. The Persians fought Greece twice in the Persian Wars. 6.4.5
Main Idea 1: Persia became an empire under Cyrus the Great. Cyrus the Great won independence for Persia from the Medes, marking the beginning of the Persian Empire. Cyrus conquered many people but let them keep their own customs. This kept people from rebelling against his strong empire.
The Persian Army This army was strong because it was well organized and loyal. Together the components of the army could defeat almost any enemy. The army was composed of Immortals, which were 10,000 soldiers chosen for their bravery and skill. The army also had a cavalry, a unit of soldiers who ride horses. Cyrus used the cavalry to charge at and shoot enemies with arrows.
Main Idea 2: The Persian Empire grew stronger under Darius I. Within four years of Cambyses’ death, a young prince named Darius I claimed the throne. He killed all his rivals for power and then worked to restore order in Persia.
Persian Society Darius organized the empire into 20 provinces, each led by a governor called a satrap. They collected taxes, served as judges, and put down rebellions. He built many roads that connected various parts of the empire. He also built a new capital, called Persepolis. During his rule a new religion arose, called Zoroastrianism. –This religion taught that two forces were fighting in the universe: a good force and an evil force. Darius expanded the empire by conquering the entire Indus Valley.
Main Idea 3: The Persians fought Greece twice in the Persian Wars. Darius was angry that the Greeks had aided a revolt against the Persians, so he invaded Greece in a series of battles known as the Persian Wars. Greece won these battles because it had better weapons and more clever leaders.
The Second Invasion of Greece Years later, Xerxes I tried to conquer Greece again, this time joined by the Persian navy. The Spartans slowed the Persian army at Thermopylae, giving Greece enough time to gain the upper hand and eventually beat the Persians at Plataea, ending the Persian Wars.
6.4.6 Sparta and Athens The Big Idea The two most powerful city-states in Greece, Sparta and Athens, had very different cultures and became bitter enemies in the 400s BC. Main Ideas The Spartans built a military society to provide security and protection. The Athenians admired the mind and the arts in addition to physical abilities. Sparta and Athens fought over who should have power and influence in Greece.
Main Idea 1: The Spartans built a military society to provide security and protection. Daily life in Sparta was dominated by the army, and boys were trained from an early age to be soldiers. –Spartan men reached full citizenship at age 30 and could then move back home, but they stayed in the army until they turned 60. Courage, strength, self-discipline, and obedience were the most important qualities to have. Because men were often at war, women had more rights than other Greek women. –They ran the household and owned property. –They also received physical training to help them bear healthy children.
Government Sparta was officially ruled by two kings who jointly led the army, but elected officials actually had more power than the kings. These officials handled dealings between Sparta and other city-states. Sparta’s government was set up to control the city’s helots, or slaves.
Girls and Women in Athens Sparta’s main rival in Greece was Athens. Though they also worked to improve their bodies, they had to devote only two years to the army. They learned to read, write, count, and sing. Wealthy boys continued their education with a private tutor. Boys from poor families usually became farmers. Unlike boys, girls received almost no education, because men did not think they needed to be educated. Athenian women had fewer rights than women in many other city- states; in fact, they hardly had any at all. Main Idea 2: The Athenians admired the mind and the arts in addition to physical abilities. Boys and Men in Athens
Main Idea 3: Sparta and Athens fought over who should have power and influence in Greece. Sparta and Athens worked together to win the Persian Wars. After the Persian Wars, city-states formed an alliance, which historians call the Delian League. –“Alliance” means they agreed to work together. Sparta formed its own alliance, called the Peloponnesian League.
Sparta declared war on Athens, starting the Peloponnesian War. The war lasted for ten years before they decided to call a truce. The war started up once more when Athens tried to expand its empire. The Spartans won. With the defeat of Athens, Sparta became the most powerful city- state in Greece. The Peloponnesian War Other city-states started to resent Sparta, leading to a period of war. Control of Greece shifted from one city-state to another for years.
6.4.7 Alexander the Great The Big Idea Alexander the Great built a huge empire and helped spread Greek culture into Egypt and Asia. Main Ideas Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC. Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt. The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexander’s empire blended Greek and other cultures.
Phillip II became king of Macedonia and targeted Greece for an invasion. He beat Athens, and the rest of Greece agreed to make him their leader after seeing Athens’s defeat. Phillip was a brilliant military leader. His soldiers fought as a phalanx with spears that were longer than the Greeks. He also had a cavalry and archers supporting the phalanx. Main Idea 1: Macedonia conquered Greece in the 300s BC. When Phillip died, his throne and his plans were passed on to his son, Alexander.
Main Idea 2: Alexander the Great built an empire that united much of Europe, Asia, and Egypt. Alexander began his rule by ending the revolt in Thebes, setting an example to the Greeks not to rebel. He then set out to build an empire and earned the name Alexander the Great. He went on to conquer Egypt and was crowned pharaoh without a fight. He then defeated Persia and became the ruler of the Persian Empire. Alexander wanted to push into India, but his troops were exhausted and refused to go. He began the march home, but died from sickness before making it back to Greece.
Spreading Greek Culture Alexander’s empire was the largest the world had ever seen. An admirer of Greek culture, he worked to spread it throughout his empire. He encouraged Greek settlers to move to the new cities he conquered. –These settlers passed along the language and culture of Greece. Alexander also encouraged people to keep their own culture, so Greek and native customs blended. Historians call the culture Hellenistic, or Greek-like.
After Alexander died, his generals fought for power and divided the empire among themselves. The three kingdoms were Macedonia, Greece, and Syria. Macedonia had the weakest government and had to put down Greek revolts. Syria was weakened by rebellions. Egypt, especially Alexandria, became a great cultural center. Main Idea 3: The Hellenistic kingdoms formed from Alexander’s empire blended Greek and other cultures. Each empire was eventually taken over by the Romans.
6.4.8 Greek Achievements The Big Idea Ancient Greeks made lasting contributions in the arts, philosophy, and science. Main Ideas The Greeks made great contributions to the arts. The teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the basis of modern philosophy. In science, the Greeks made key discoveries in math, medicine, and engineering.
Main Idea 1: The Greeks made great contributions to the arts. Greek statues look as though they could come to life at any time, because Greek artists wanted to show how beautiful people could be. Greek paintings are known for their realism and detail. The Greeks made temples with rows of tall columns rounded in the middle so they appear perfectly straight. – The Parthenon was their most impressive temple. The Greeks excelled at writing. –They created dramas, or plays. –The Greeks were the first to write about history.
Main Idea 2: The teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are the basis of modern philosophy. Socrates taught by asking questions, a technique we call the Socratic method. –He wanted people to question their beliefs and look for knowledge. This angered and frightened people. –He was arrested and condemned to death for questioning the authority of the gods. Plato and Aristotle followed after Socrates in their pursuit for knowledge and deeper understanding.
Plato and Aristotle Plato had been a student of Socrates. Plato created a school, the Academy, to discuss ideas. He also wrote The Republic, which described his ideal society. Aristotle was Plato’s student. He taught about living life in moderation, or balance. He believed moderation was based on reason, or clear and ordered thinking.
Main Idea 3: In science, the Greeks made key discoveries in math, medicine, and engineering. Euclid spent his life studying mathematics, especially geometry. Greek doctors studied the human body to understand how it worked. Hippocrates was a Greek doctor known for his ideas about how doctors should behave. Engineers like Archimedes made great discoveries, such as the water screw, which brought water to the fields.