Presentation on theme: "The City States Ch. 10. I. Polis Polis means city-state Many city-states in ancient Greece Athens Athens Sparta Sparta Ithaca Ithaca Corinth Corinth."— Presentation transcript:
The City States Ch. 10
I. Polis Polis means city-state Many city-states in ancient Greece Athens Athens Sparta Sparta Ithaca Ithaca Corinth Corinth
Governments varied as each city was independent Monarchies early on Monarchies early on Oligarchies and democracies emerged Oligarchies and democracies emerged Citizenship meant Citizenship meant Participate in governmentParticipate in government Own propertyOwn property Defend polisDefend polis
Acropolis- sacred hill Agora- market area
II. Sparta Government- democratic monarchial oligarchy Kings – 2 of them Ephors- 5 men over 60 ran the military charge of education charge of infant selection committee Council-28 nobles Supreme criminal court
Life Examined at birth Examined at birth Age 7 sent to military camp Age 7 sent to military camp Age of 20 became hoplite Age of 20 became hoplite Given certain rightsGiven certain rights Allowed to marryAllowed to marry Remained in campRemained in camp Age of 30 became equal Age of 30 became equal Given plot of landGiven plot of land Able to take part in government and warAble to take part in government and war Age 60, retired if still alive Age 60, retired if still alive
Society Spartan Spartan Defended polisDefended polis Ran governmentRan government Perioeci Perioeci Craftsman and tradersCraftsman and traders Helots Helots Slaves who worked the landSlaves who worked the land
SPARTAN STORIES Plutarch, The Ancient Customs of the Spartans 2 [Moralia 236F]: "A thing that met with especial approval among them was their so-called black broth [zomos], so much that the older men did not require a bit of meat, but gave up all of it to the young men. It is said that Dionysius, the tyrant of Sicily, for the sake of this bought a slave who had been a Spartan cook, and ordered him to prepare the broth for him, sparing no expense. But when the king tasted it, he spat it out in disgust, whereupon the cook said, 'O King, it is necessary to have exercised in teh Spartan manner, and to have bathed in the Eurotas, in order to relish this broth." Plutarch, The Ancient Customs of the Spartans 4 [237A]: "They learned to read and write for purely practical reasons; but all other forms of education they banned from the country, books and treatises being included in this quite as much as men. All their education was directed toward prompt obedience to authority, stout endurance of hardship, and victory or death in battle." Plutarch, The Ancient Customs of the Spartans 6 [237B]: "The young men slept together, according to division [ile] and company [angele], upon pallets which they themselves brought together by breaking off by hand, without any implement, the tops of the reeds which grew on the banks of the Eurotas. In the winter they put beneath their pallets, and intermingled with them, the plant called lykophron, since the material is reputed to possess some warming qualities."
Continued A messenger returned to Sparta from a battle. The women clustered around. To one, the messenger said, “Mother, I bring sad news: your son was killed facing the enemy.” The mother said, “He is my son.” “Your other son is alive and unhurt,” said the messenger. “He fled from the enemy.” The mother said, “He is not my son.” A different messenger returned from a battle and was hailed by a Spartan mother: “How fares our country, herald?” The messenger burst into tears. “Mother, I pity you,” he said. “All five of your sons have been killed facing the enemy.” “You fool!” said the woman. “I did not ask of my sons. I asked whether Sparta was victorious!” “Indeed, Mother, our warriors have prevailed.” “Then I am happy,” said the mother, and she turned and walked home.
Most societies admire Sparta but refuse to imitate. Why?
Rise of Democracy Athens ruled by an oligarchy Athens ruled by an oligarchy Rich in Athens lived on luxurious estates Rich in Athens lived on luxurious estates Poor lived on small farms and had trouble paying bills Poor lived on small farms and had trouble paying bills Many became enslaved because debt! Many became enslaved because debt! Poor threaten to rebel. What do you do??? Poor threaten to rebel. What do you do???
Reformers Solon Solon Dismissed outstanding debtDismissed outstanding debt Freed some slavesFreed some slaves Limited ownership of landLimited ownership of land Peisistratus Peisistratus Divide up large estatesDivide up large estates Land no longer requirement for citizenshipLand no longer requirement for citizenship Cleisthenes Cleisthenes Expanded citizenshipExpanded citizenship Athens first democracyAthens first democracy
Athenian Democracy Commander in Chief 10 Generals Council of 500Assembly______ Council of 500Assembly______ Chosen by lot All males over 20 Chosen by lot All males over 20 Daily businessPassed laws Daily businessPassed laws
Life in Athens Male dominated society Ran the government Ran the government Went to war Went to war Owned business’ Owned business’ Women Took care of homes Took care of homes Rarely attended any public festivals Rarely attended any public festivals Children Went to elementary schools to learn a wide variety of subjects. “Healthy mind is as important as healthy body” Went to elementary schools to learn a wide variety of subjects. “Healthy mind is as important as healthy body” At age 13, wealthy boys went to higher school, poor taught a trade. At age 13, wealthy boys went to higher school, poor taught a trade. Military school at age Military school at age 18-20
Persian Wars BBBBattle of Marathon Persian vs. Athenians 490 BC Plains of Marathon Athenians attack Persians as they are unloading from ships Athenian victory BBBBattle of Thermopylae Greeks vs. Persians 480 BC Thermopylae Persian army crushes Greek army led by the Spartans Persian victory
Persian Wars Continued Battle of Salamis Greeks vs. Persians Greeks vs. Persians 480 BC 480 BC Strait of Salamis Strait of Salamis Greek ships are able to defeat much larger Persian ships Greek ships are able to defeat much larger Persian ships King Xerxes orders a retreat King Xerxes orders a retreat
Strait of Salamis
IV. Decline of the City States DDDDelian League Defensive league Athens dominates and uses dues to rebuild city Athens enters into a Golden Age led by Pericles Anti-Athenian feelings develop over time, why?
Parthenon- Temple to honor Athena
Peloponnesian War Athens vs. Sparta Athens vs. Sparta Athens defeated Athens defeated Sparta rules over much of Greece until Phillip of Macedonia invades Greece Sparta rules over much of Greece until Phillip of Macedonia invades Greece