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Political characteristics

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1 Political characteristics
Ancient Greece: Impact of Geography & Economy on Political characteristics

2 Impact of Geography Greece is mountainous
Traveling was difficult People settled in the valleys between the mountains The mountains kept the groups of people apart. Greece was not one country. But spoke one language, and all believed in the same Gods

3 City-States Independent states “Polis”

4 Polis Each polis had it’s own laws, rulers, money, and customs.
A polis typically included a city and surrounding villages, fields, and orchards.

5 Impact of Economy By 700 B.C.E., the farmers could not grow enough grain to feed the population. So people from each polis began to settle outside the Greek peninsula, in coastal regions, like Ionia. They supplied their homeland with the grain they needed and traded the exports of Greece like olives and wine.

6 Merchants These merchants expanded trade throughout the Mediterranean Sea and became wealthy. They replaced their bartering system with a money system. Ionia Greece

7 Rebellion Economic growth changed Greek political life; where once kings had ruled, landholding aristocrats took power. Disputes arose between the aristocrats and farmers, who demanded political reforms. Merchants and artisans , who wanted to advance business interests, also began demanding change. Rebellions broke out in many city-states.

8 Political Reform After the rebellions, most city-states become either oligarchies or democracies . The most famous democracy in Greece was Athens, and the most famous oligarchy was Sparta.

9 Athens 1st Democracy All citizens were equal under the law.
Each citizen had the right to speak and to vote in the assembly. Each citizen could become the leader.

10 Citizens Males over the age of 18 Take active part in government
Not everyone could be a citizen. Responsibilities of a citizen Males over the age of 18 Born in the polis Take active part in government Attend Assembly meetings to vote on issues Serve in the military to defend the polis.

11 Males 18 and up born in the polis were citizens…
Who were not citizens?

12 How their democracy worked- 2 branches of government
Ten Generals Members of the Assembly (10) In charge of the military Served as judges Council of 500 Members of the Assembly (500) Randomly chosen Proposed laws Advised the Assembly Ran day-to-day business of the assembly

13 Famous Political Leaders of Athenian Democracy
Cleisthenes Leader in Athens Wrote the first democratic constitution in 509 B.C.E. Pericles Leader during the “Golden Age”; ruled for more than 30 years. Responsible for full development of democracy in Athens. Encouraged art, literature, and philosophy Had Parthenon and other temples built to rebuild after Persian War.

14 City-States Independent states “Polis”

15 Acropolis At the center of the city (acropolis) was a temple.
Below the temple was the agora.

16 The Parthenon was the temple to Athena.

17 The Parthenon was the center of the Acropolis.

18 The Agora was the marketplace and gathering place.
The agora was a place of activity. It was the marketplace, the courts, the place for entertainment.

19 Explore Ancient Athens

20 Wars and Expansion Rugged coastline made it difficult for other countries to invade Greece.

21 Persian Wars The Persians tried to conquer Greece.
The people of Athens fought for 20 years to win the war against Persia.

22 Peloponnesian Wars Sparta & Athens each expanded their territory.
Sparta did not like Athens having so much power. Sparta & Athens fought for control and power for more than 30 years. These wars weakened the Greek city-states.

23 Invasion & Expansion Alexander the Great (from Macedonia) invaded many lands and expanded the Greek Empire.

24 Cultural Borrowing Alexander the Great brought Greek culture to the lands he ruled. Persian buildings were built to look like Greek buildings. People all over the empire started to use Greek money. The empire became a mixture of many cultures.

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