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World History Unit 7: World War I. I.The Rise of Germany and Alliances A. 1862-1871 -- Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of G 1. “most powerful German b/t.

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Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 7: World War I. I.The Rise of Germany and Alliances A. 1862-1871 -- Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of G 1. “most powerful German b/t."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History Unit 7: World War I

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3 I.The Rise of Germany and Alliances A Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of G 1. “most powerful German b/t Luther and Hitler” – built G into most powerful mil in Eu – Triple Alliance - G, A-H, Italy - hold strong against “distrustful” border nations Fr and Ru (Slavic tensions w/A-H) – Triple Entente Alliance - Br, Fr, Ru Bismarck

4 II.The Outbreak of WWI A. Nationalism in the Balkans 1. Balkan nationalists – want independence from A-H or Ottoman Empire “The Balkans”

5 Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand - heir to A-H throne - visited Bosnia - assassin Gavrilo Princip, Serbian Nationalist terrorist group – “The Black Hand” A-H declares war on Serbia 4. G gives “complete support” to A-H 5. Ru – protector of Slavs in Serbia Bosnia

6 “Babes on Boyonets”

7 6. Ru declares war on A-H 7. G, fearing 2 front war, attacks Fr, through neutral Belgium 8. Br sees G as “aggressors” 9. Br and Fr declare war on G The Triple Entente = The Allies - Br, Fr, Ru vs. 11. The Central Powers Alliance - G, A-H, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire

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9 B. WWI: A New Kind of War 1. War begins w/German invasion of Belgium, Fr 2. Fr expecting old warfare 3. Germans surprise w/Machine Gun – 600 bullets/min 4. Trench warfare develops – ditches dug for protection 5. Stalemate developed 6. Other new weapons a) Mustard gas attacks b) gas masks c) tank d) airplanes

10 WWI Trench Warfare

11 C. Will the U.S. Enter WWI? 1. Pres. Wilson favors neutrality because: a) CP – all Monarchy Gov’ts b) AP -- Many Americans didn’t want to fight against Germany c) AP – Russia, a Monarchy President Wilson

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13 D U.S. begins to favor the Allies 1. Allies strategy – naval blockade of G 2.G U-boats were sinking ships and breaking the blockade 3. G announces “unrestricted u-boat warfare.” (UUW) 4. Pres. Wilson sends note to G “stop using UUW” 5. May 1, U-boats sink the Br Lusitania passenger ship a) 1200 dead, 128 Americans – Wilson wins reelection promising neutrality Germany continues UUW

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15 8. Russian Revolution of 1917 a) Industrial working conditions,defeats in war = DISCONTENT b) Tsar Nicholas II travels to the war front c) Rasputin gains influence, nobles concerned d) Rasputin killed, nobles demand change e) Vladamir Lenin leads communist overthrow f) Tsar abdicates and Lenin’s new communist gov’t reigns = THE SOVIET UNION Tsar NicholasRasputinLenin

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17 9. Now, Americans feel ok joining Allies w/ Ru 10. Wilson - “The world must be safe for democracy” 11. April 6, 1917 America Declares War against the Central Powers “It is our time to assert ourselves as the respected democracy we have striven to become.” - President Woodrow Wilso n

18 G. American Mobilization for War 1. Propaganda – gov’t posters,speeches and other communication designed to influence opinions 2. The Goal – get Americans to distrust the enemy (Germany), feel patriotic, and rally for the war

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23 E The “Great War” Ends 1. Central Powers Victory? a) Russia’s new leader, Lenin, makes peace w/ G b) G no longer fighting a 2 front war c) G closes in on Paris d) Americans protecting Paris turn G back 2. G Surrenders a) blockade weakens G economy b) G citizens demand change, soldiers desert c) A/H signs Armistice, G follows d) 8.5 million total dead, cost $280 billion

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25 IV. Wilson’s Dream: World Peace A. Wilson wants a “lasting peace” 1) “14 Points for Peace” plan a) balance of power system is flawed b) 1 world-wide organization dedicated to peace is needed --THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS “There must not be a balance of power, but a community of power; not alliances made up of organized rivalries, but an organized common peace.” -President Wilson

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27 “The terrible responsibility which lies at Germany’s doors can be seen in the fact that not less then seven million lie buried while more than twenty million others carry upon them the evidence of wounds and sufferings, because Germany saw fit to gratify her desires for war.” ~ Georges Clemenceau French Prime Minister, 1919

28 B.British, French Harsh Revision of 14 Points THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES a) calls for total destruction of G b) G must pay Allies $33 billion in war reparations c) G military restrictions -- no airforce, limited navy, army -- no tanks or big guns d) G & A/H could not unite e) G must surrender all territory, colonies f) G could not belong to L of N g) Creates 9 new nations 2. Wilson disappointed but believes L of N will solve the world’s problems

29 WWIAfter WWI EUROPE

30 C.The U.S. Struggle to Approve Treaty of V 1. Wilson delivers 36 speeches in 22 days 2. Wilson suffers a massive stroke 3. Treaty fails to get support from Congress - “we wish to avoid entangling alliances” L of N is created but w/o U.S. support L of N disbands at start of WWII D. WWI – “the war to end all wars?”


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