Glorification of the military 1. Arms race and the development of large armies and navies 2. Romantic view of War 3. Harder to use diplomacy
French Calvary going to front, Paris, August 2, 1914 British Troops mobilizing
187018801890190019101914 94130154268289398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 1910-14 Increase in Defense Spending France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
1879 The Dual Alliance Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia 1881 Austro-Serbian Alliance Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Serbia to stop Russia gaining control of Serbia 1882 The Triple Alliance Germany and Austria- Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia 1914 Triple Entente (no separate peace) Britain, Russia and France agreed not to sign for peace separately. 1894 Franco-Russian Alliance Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary 1907 Triple Entente This was made between Russia, France and Britain to counter the increasing threat from Germany. 1907 Anglo-Russian Entente This was an agreement between Britain and Russia 1904 Entente Cordiale This was an agreement, but not a formal alliance, between France and Britain.
A strong feeling of pride and devotion to one’s country 1. Power- wanting to be the biggest and the best 2. The Balkans “powder keg of Europe” 3. Alsace and Lorraine (Had changed between the French and Germans 4 times by the end of WWII)
Nationalism was both a uniting force and a divisive one. It resulted in Germany and Italy uniting into strong nations, and also caused the eventual disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Austria- Hungary.
In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over the former Turkish province of Bosnia. This angered Serbians who felt the province should be theirs. Serbia threatened AH with war, Russia, allied to Serbia, mobilized its forces.
Germany, allied to AH mobilized its forces and prepared to threaten Russia. War was avoided when Russia backed down. There was, however, war in the Balkans between 1911 -12 when the Balkan states drove Turkey out of the area. The states fought each other over which area should belong to whom.
A-H then intervened and forced Serbia to give up some of its acquisitions. Tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary was high.
The Great Powers under the terror of explosion in Balkans at 1912-3
What: The assassination of the heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne, The Arch-duke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand, a Serbian nationalist terrorist group Where: Sarajevo, Bosnia (Territory of AH) When: June 28, 1914
Sarajevo court room. Front row seated from the left: Trifun Grabe ž, Nedjelko Č abrinovi ć, Gavrilo Princip, Danilo Ili ć, Veljko Č ubrilovi ć.
this caused Austria to crack down on the Serbs with German backing (even though Ferdinand was not greatly beloved by the Emperor, Franz Josef, or his government). Germany thought a war would solve its own internal problems of civil unrest and so she encouraged Austria’s militancy. Austria issued an ultimatum, moved in, and shelled Belgrade – the capital of Serbia.
Unsatisfied, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. On July 29 th, Russia (an ally of Serbia) ordered a partial mobilization only against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia, which escalated into a general mobilization. The Germans threatened war on July 31 st if the Russians did not demobilize.
Upon being asked by Germany what it would do in the event of a Russo-German War, France responded that it would act in its own interests and mobilized. On August 1 st, Germany declared war on Russia, and two days later, on France. The German invasion of Belgium, August 4 th, to attack France, which violated Belgium's official neutrality, prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. The Great War had arrived.
July 31 Both France and Germany were asked by Britain to declare their support for the ongoing neutrality of Belgium. France agreed this. Germany did not respond. July 31: Both France and Germany were asked by Britain to declare their support for the ongoing neutrality of Belgium. France agreed this. Germany did not respond. August 1: Germany declares war against Russia. August 2 : Germany and The Ottoman Empire sign a secret treaty entrenching the Ottoman-German Alliance August 3: Germany declares war on France. Germany states to Belgium that she would "treat her as an enemy" if she did not allow free passage of German troops across her lands. August 4: Germany invades Belgium according to the modified Schlieffen Plan. August 4 Britain declares war on Germany. August 6: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. August 23: Japan, honoring the Anglo-Japans', declares war on Germany.