Presentation on theme: "World War I Chapter 29. Causes of WWI 1. Nationalism caused intense competition by the turn of the 20th century among Europe’s Great Powers for industrial."— Presentation transcript:
Causes of WWI 1. Nationalism caused intense competition by the turn of the 20th century among Europe’s Great Powers for industrial dominance and power – Germany – Austria-Hungary – Great Britain – Russia, – Italy, – France
Causes of WWI 2. Imperialism intensified European nations’ sense of rivalry and mistrust toward one another as they competed for colonies in Asia and Africa
Causes of WWI 3. Militarism led to an arms race and formation of large standing armies and, eventually, to military alliances
Causes of WWI 4. Triple Alliance (1882) created an unstable and fragile alliance that tried to isolate France Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy
Causes of WWI 5. Triple Entente (1907) Established two rival camps in Europe—Triple Alliance and Triple Entente—that created the possibility that any dispute between two rival powers could draw the entire continent into war. A Russian poster depicting Triple Entente
Causes of World War I 6. Assassination in Sarajevo provided Austria Hungary with an excuse to launch war on Serbia, leading to a confrontation between Austria and Russia Gavrilo Princip ran to the car and shot the couple to death. The assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group nicknamed the "Black Hand". The Black Hand
Causes of WWI: Kaiser Wilhelm II Who was Kaiser Wilhelm? The German ruler who forced Bismarck to resign, allowed the German- Russian treaty to lapse (leading to the formation of a Franco-Russian alliance), and built up the German navy to challenge Britain (leading to the formation of the Triple Entente). footage
War Consumes Europe CAUSE 1.Russia mobilizes along the German border. 2. Germany invades Belgium to get to France. EFFECT Germany declares war on Russia and on France Britain declares war on Germany; Italy joins the Triple Entente, arguing that the unprovoked attack allowed it to divorce itself from its old ally Germany.
War Consumes Europe CAUSE 3. The Allies defeat the Germans in the Battle of the Marne EFFECT The Allies’ victory destroys Germany’s hopes for a quick victory in the west, and suggests that Germany may have to fight a long war on two fronts.
War Consumes Europe CAUSE 4. Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, and airplanes are used in battles along the Western Front. EFFECT The new technology turns the Western Front into a horrible and horrifying “terrain of death” in which huge numbers of soldiers to die. WWI Weapons
War Consumes Europe CAUSE 5. Russian forces attack both Austria and Germany. 6. The Allies are unable to ship war supplies to Russia’s ports. EFFECT Germany counterattacks, forces Russian forces to retreat, and Regains East Prussia. Austrian forces drive the Russians out of Austria-Hungary. 6. Because Russia is not industrialized, its war effort is short of supplies and near collapse.
War Consumes Europe B) Schlieffen Plan: German plan for a two-front war in which the German army would quickly defeat the French in the west and then race east to defeat the Russians Central Powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and later Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, and later Japan and Italy Western Front: deadlocked region in northern France Trench warfare: type of warfare in which soldiers fought each other from trenches, leading to huge losses for small land gains Eastern Front: stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
War Affects the World Feb 1915: 1. What was the purpose of the Gallipoli campaign? The Allies believed that if they could – Take Constantinople, – defeat the Turks, and – establish a supply line to Russia Gallipoli movie trailer Amy Winehouse song Back to Black
Unrestricted German submarine warfare The Sinking of the Lusitania May 17, 1915 1198 people drowned, including 128 Americans.
BRITISH INTERCEPT THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE FEBRUARY 1917 Germans offered Mexico land in Texas Mexico ignored the note
War Affects the World April 1917 2. Why did the United States enter the war? a) public outrage over Germany’s unrestricted Submarine warfare b) the Zimmermann note, c) traditional bonds between Americans and English, d) reports of German war atrocities, and e) most importantly, strong economic ties with Allies
War Affects the World 3. Why did the Czar of Russia’s government collapse? Czar Nicholas abdicated when he was faced with civil unrest due in part to wartime shortages, the refusal of the army to continue fighting, and the prospect of revolution Russian crowd rejoices when Czar Nicholas abdicates, March 15, 1917.
War Affects the World November 17, 1917 Lenin seizes power in Russia March 1918 Germany and Russia sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. 4. What were the terms of this treaty? The treaty ended the war between Russia and Germany; the Russian government to surrendered lands to Germany: – Latvia, – Lithuania – Estonia – Ukraine – Poland, – Finland
War Affects the World July 1918 Allies and Germans fight Second Battle of the Marne. 5. What was the significance of this battle? The German war effort had exhausted both men and supplies; more than two million American troops took part in this battle; Allied forces began to advance steadily toward Germany and the Central Powers began to crumble
War Affects The World November 1918 War Ends 6. What events signaled the final defeat of the Central Powers? surrender of Bulgarians and Ottoman Turks; revolution in Austria- Hungary; mutiny in Germany and forced resignation of Kaiser
War Affects the World Unrestricted submarine warfare: German policy under which submarines would sink any ship (in waters around Britain) without warning Total war: situation in which countries devote all their resources to the war effort Rationing: system in which people can buy only small amounts of items needed for the war effort Propaganda: one-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the war Armistice: an agreement to stop fighting
A Flawed Peace 1) Woodrow Wilson’s concerns (14 points) a just and lasting peace achieved by ending secret treaties; freedom of the seas, free trade, and reduced national armies and navies; adjustment of colo- nial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples; granting self-determination; establishing a world peace organization 2. Britain and France were concerned with national security, Stripping Germany of its war-making power, and punishing Germany.
A Flawed Peace 3.. Germany lost substantial territory, had severe restrictions placed on its military operations, and was forced to acknowledge “war guilt” and pay reparations to the Allies. 4. New countries were created from the Austrian- Hungarian Empire; Ottoman lands in southwest Asia were carved up into mandates rather than independent nations; Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania became independent nations; Poland and Romania gained Russian territory.
A Flawed Peace: The Treaty of Versailles 5. The treaty created the League of Nations, an international association whose goal was to keep peace among nations. 6. Many Americans objected to the League of Nations, believing that the United States should stay out of European affairs. 7. Without U.S. support, the League of Nations was unable to take action on various complaints of nations aroundthe world.
A Flawed Peace: The Treaty of Versailles 8. Why did many countries feel bitter and cheated as a result of the treaty? The war guilt clause left a legacy of hatred among the Germans; Africans and Asians were angry that their desire for independence was ignored; Japanese and Italians gained less land than they wanted.
A Flawed Peace The Paris Peace Conference. Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Georges Clemenceau of France, and David Lloyd George of Great Britain Vittorio Orlando of Italy Self-determination: the idea that peoples should decide for themselves to what nation they would belong League of Nations: an international association created by the Treaty of Versailles that was intended to keep peace among nations Mandate: territory to be administered by the League of Nations until judged ready for independence