2Causes of WWI dominance and power Germany Austria-Hungary 1. Nationalism caused intense competition by the turn of the 20th century among Europe’s Great Powers for industrialdominance and powerGermanyAustria-HungaryGreat BritainRussia,Italy,France
3Causes of WWI2. Imperialism intensified European nations’ sense of rivalry and mistrust toward one another as they competed for colonies in Asia and Africa
4Causes of WWI3. Militarism led to an arms race and formation of large standing armies and, eventually, to military alliances
5Causes of WWI 4. Triple Alliance (1882) created an unstable and fragile alliance that tried to isolate FranceGermany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
6Causes of WWI 5. Triple Entente (1907) Established two rival camps in Europe—Triple Allianceand Triple Entente—thatcreated the possibility thatany dispute between tworival powers could draw theentire continent into war.A Russian poster depicting Triple Entente
7Causes of World War I 6. Assassination in Sarajevo provided Austria Hungary with an excuse tolaunch war on Serbia,leading to a confrontationbetweenAustria andRussiaGavrilo Princip ran to the car and shot the couple to death. The assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group nicknamed the "Black Hand".The Black Hand
8Causes of WWI: Kaiser Wilhelm II Who was Kaiser Wilhelm?The German ruler whoforced Bismarck to resign,allowed the German-Russian treaty to lapse (leading to the formation of a Franco-Russian alliance), andbuilt up the German navy to challenge Britain (leading to the formation of the TripleEntente).footage
9War Consumes Europe CAUSE EFFECT Russia mobilizes along the German border.2. Germany invades Belgium to get to France.Germany declares war on Russia and on FranceBritain declares war on Germany;Italy joins the Triple Entente, arguing that the unprovoked attack allowed it to divorce itself from its old ally Germany.
10War Consumes Europe CAUSE EFFECT 3. The Allies defeat the Germans in the Battle of the MarneThe Allies’ victory destroys Germany’s hopes for a quick victory in the west,and suggests that Germany may have to fight a long war on two fronts.
11War Consumes Europe CAUSE EFFECT 4. Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, and airplanes are used in battles along the Western Front.The new technology turns the Western Front into a horrible and horrifying “terrain of death” in which huge numbers of soldiers to die.WWI Weapons
12War Consumes Europe CAUSE EFFECT 5. Russian forces attack both Austria and Germany. 6. The Allies are unable to ship war supplies to Russia’s ports.Germany counterattacks, forcesRussian forces to retreat, andRegains East Prussia. Austrianforces drive the Russians out ofAustria-Hungary.6. Because Russia is notindustrialized, its war effort isshort of supplies and nearcollapse.
13War Consumes EuropeB)Schlieffen Plan: German plan for a two-front war in which the German army would quickly defeat theFrench in the west and then race east to defeat the RussiansCentral Powers: Germany, Austria- Hungary, and later Bulgaria and the Ottoman EmpireAllies: Great Britain, France, Russia, and later Japan and ItalyWestern Front: deadlocked region in northern FranceTrench warfare: type of warfare in which soldiers fought each other fromtrenches, leading to huge losses for small land gainsEastern Front: stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian borderwhere Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks
14War Affects the WorldFeb 1915: 1. What was the purpose of the Gallipoli campaign?The Allies believed that if they couldTake Constantinople,defeat the Turks, andestablish a supply line to RussiaGallipoli movie trailerAmy Winehouse song Back to Black
15Unrestricted German submarine warfare The Sinking of the Lusitania May 17, 19151198 people drowned, including 128 Americans.
16BRITISH INTERCEPT THE ZIMMERMAN NOTE FEBRUARY 1917 Germans offered Mexico land in TexasMexico ignored the note
17War Affects the World April 1917 2. Why did the United States enter the war?a) public outrage over Germany’s unrestricted Submarine warfare b) the Zimmermann note, c) traditional bonds between Americans and English, d) reports of German war atrocities, and e) most importantly, strong economic ties with Allies
18War Affects the World3. Why did the Czar of Russia’s government collapse?Czar Nicholas abdicatedwhen he was faced withcivil unrest due in part towartime shortages,the refusal of the army to continue fighting, and theprospect of revolutionRussian crowd rejoices when Czar Nicholas abdicates, March 15, 1917.
19War Affects the World November 17, 1917 Lenin seizes power in Russia March 1918Germany and Russia sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.4. What were the terms of this treaty?The treaty ended the war between Russia and Germany; theRussian government to surrendered lands to Germany:Latvia,LithuaniaEstoniaUkrainePoland,Finland
20War Affects the WorldJuly 1918 Allies and Germans fight Second Battle of the Marne.5. What was the significance of this battle?The German war effort had exhausted both men and supplies;more than two million American troops took part in this battle;Allied forces began to advance steadily toward Germany andthe Central Powers began to crumble
21War Affects The WorldNovember 1918 War Ends 6. What events signaled the final defeat of the Central Powers?surrender of Bulgarians and Ottoman Turks;revolution in Austria-Hungary;mutiny in Germany andforced resignation of Kaiser
22War Affects the WorldUnrestricted submarine warfare: German policy under which submarines would sink any ship (in waters around Britain) without warningTotal war: situation in which countries devote all their resources to the war effortRationing: system in which people can buy only small amounts of items needed for the war effortPropaganda: one-sided information designed to persuade, to keep up morale and support for the warArmistice: an agreement to stop fighting
23A Flawed Peace 1) Woodrow Wilson’s concerns (14 points) a just and lasting peace achieved by ending secret treaties;freedom of the seas, free trade, and reduced national armies and navies;adjustment of colo- nial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples; granting self-determination;establishing a world peace organization2. Britain and France were concerned withnational security,Stripping Germany of its war-making power, andpunishing Germany.
24A Flawed Peace3. . Germany lost substantial territory, had severe restrictions placed on its military operations, and was forced to acknowledge “war guilt” and pay reparations to the Allies.4. New countries were created from the Austrian-Hungarian Empire; Ottoman lands in southwest Asia were carved up into mandates rather than independent nations;Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania became independent nations;Poland and Romania gained Russian territory.
25A Flawed Peace: The Treaty of Versailles 5. The treaty created the League of Nations, an international association whose goal was to keep peace among nations.6. Many Americans objected to the League of Nations, believing that the United States should stay out of European affairs.7. Without U.S. support, the League of Nations was unable to take action on various complaints of nations aroundthe world.
26A Flawed Peace: The Treaty of Versailles 8. Why did many countries feel bitter and cheated as a result of the treaty?The war guilt clause left a legacy of hatred among the Germans;Africans and Asians were angry that their desire for independence was ignored;Japanese and Italians gained less land than they wanted.
27A Flawed Peace The Paris Peace Conference. Woodrow Wilson of the United States,Georges Clemenceau of France, andDavid Lloyd George of Great BritainVittorio Orlando of ItalySelf-determination: the idea that peoples should decide for themselves towhat nation they would belongLeague of Nations: an international association created by the Treaty ofVersailles that was intended to keep peace among nationsMandate: territory to be administered by the League of Nations until judgedready for independence