2 Pop Quiz for Candy! What were the MAIN causes of WWI? What was the spark that started WWI?What countries were in the Triple Alliance?What countries were in the Triple Entente?By the end of the war, what countries had joined the Allied powers? (Besides the original 3)What was the Schlieffen Plan?What was the battle line called between France and Germany?What were 3 downsides of Trench Warfare?What were three weapons that were first militarily introduced during WWI?What were the three main reasons America entered WWI?Which country exited the war in 1917?
3 Reviewing the Timeline 1914 – WWI beginsJune 28, 1914 – Franz Ferdinand shot1915Stalemate on the Western frontGallipoli Campaign1916Feb – Dec – Battle of VerdunJuly – Battle of the SommeRussia struggles1917U.S. enters WWIRussia withdraws from the war1918 – WWI ends1919 – Treaty of Versailles signed
4 The Influenza Last months of the war Killed more people worldwide than all battles of the war
5 Progression of the Great Influenza First detected in KansasAmerican troops arriving in France in the spring of 1918 carried the strainSwept the Western front, disabling 500,000 German troopsThen vanishedSecond and third waves deadlierThe influenza killed within a few days30 million people died
6 Germany Rushes WestNow that they didn’t have to fight Russia, they moved all their troops towards FranceBut their troops were not as strong anymoreAllies (with 140,000 American troops) counterattackedSecond Battle of the MarneAllies began to advance towards Germany
7 Central Powers Collapse Bulgarians surrenderOttoman Turks surrenderAustria-Hungary’s troops mutinied
8 Armistice In Germany, troops also mutinied People went against the KaiserNov. 9, 1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped downGermany declared itself a RepublicA representative from Germany met with a French commander in a railway carThey signed an armistice – an agreement to stop fightingWhat do you think the peace agreement might involve?
9 WWI Statistics: Death Tolls Whose were highest? Whose were lowest?Why?
11 The PeaceRepresentatives from the U.S., France, Britain and Italy met to determine the terms of the peace
12 Paris Peace Conference Began January 1919 at Palace of VersaillesRepresentatives from 32 countriesGermany and its allies not representedRussia also excluded – civil war raging
13 The Big Four Conference dominated by leaders from 4 major powers: Britain: David Lloyd GeorgeFrance: Georges ClemenceauUnited States: Woodrow WilsonItaly: Vittorio Orlando
14 The Fourteen PointsWoodrow Wilson had developed a peace plan during the warGoal was establishment of a plan for lasting peaceConcept of self-determination14th point called for creation of a “general association of nations”
15 Treaty of VersaillesConsiderable debate among Big 4 regarding terms of treatyBritain & France most concerned about national security and punishing GermanyWilson focused on creating a framework for lasting peace
16 Terms of Treaty Alsace-Lorraine returned to France German colonies become mandates; controlled by League of NationsSevere limitations on German militaryGermany accepts blame for war (“war guilt”)
17 War Guilt – Article 231 Germany must accept sole blame for war Forced to pay reparations to Allies totally $33 billionBitter pill for people of Germany
18 Military Restrictions for Germany Could not manufacture or import weapons or war materialsSize of army limited to 100kLimit on size of naval ships; no submarinesNo air force
19 League of Nations Established an international association of nations Based on last of Wilson’s 14 pointsMain goal: keep peace
20 Germany and the Treaty Germany not part of the negotiations Germany never believed they had lost the warWar had been fought almost entirely on foreign soilGermans believed the treaty would reflect Wilson’s Fourteen Points – i.e. a peace agreementPunished GermanyLost territoryRestrictions on its military operations“War Guilt” cause blamed Germany for the war and forced it to pay reparations to the AlliesWhat did this lead to?Germany lost all its imperial territories
21 Carving up EuropeThe Allies also signed treaties with the other Central Powers – they lost land as wellAustria-Hungary carved into other countries:AustriaHungaryCzechoslovakiaYugoslaviaOttoman Turks only got to keep TurkeyOther areas made into nations
23 Wilson’s 14 Points Treaty of Versailles The League of NationsFreedom of the seasFreedom of tradeLimit of arms and military build upEnd secret alliancesGrant all colonies and nations independenceRight to self-determination for all nationsReturn Alsace-Lorraine to FranceLimit Military for GermanyAllied Troops occupy the Rhineland for 15 yearsCreation of new countries for nations in Eastern EuropeGermany pays reparations for warForce Germany to sign a “Guilt Clause”
24 Problems of the PeaceMany countries disagreed with the terms of the TreatyMost countries felt the Treaty wasn’t fair to themAmerica ultimately rejected the Treaty, wanting to stay out of European affairsGermany was very bitter about the “war guilt clause”
25 The Impact of WWI Mass deaths – 14 million (soldiers and civilians) $338 billion spentWarfare forever altered – modern weapons and tacticsRestructured EuropeBitter GermanyModernity – Disillusionment and despairSet the stage for World War II